Homework

Accounting 102 ??“ Managerial Accounting
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Concepts and Terminology of Statistics Applied to Business Decision Making

Introduction Company W, recently acquired by WidgeCorp, utilizes different management styles and decision making processes than their parent company. Within a year, Company W and WidgeCorp will merge all management, process and accounting functions. Company W will be expected to adopt statistical methods in presenting relevant information to the WidgeCorp executives rather than relying on the experience and judgment of their managers. To assist the marketing department, this report will suggest quantitative objects used in tracking callers of the 1-800 phone bank and/or their behavior with respect to the snack food category. It will also indicate whether the quantitative objects are continuous or discrete. Discrete and Continuous Variables Discrete variables are those which can assume a finite number of values such as integers or sets of states. Examples are items that can be counted, a yes/no response, and days of the week. Continuous variables are those with an infinite number of values such as scientific measurements and monetary items. Suggested Quantitative Objects A caller to the 1-800 call bank is most likely a current customer calling about a product or experience which leads to a somewhat biased sampling. If there is value in surveying existing customers, then the 1-800 call bank is a viable option; however, for a true random sampling, another data collection method targeting a wider population would need to be devised. Age is a major consideration in marketing discretionary items such as snack foods in order to target the most profitable demographics and to develop products and marketing strategies directed toward age groups not as inclined to purchase snack items. Age is a discrete data object subject to statistical analysis but not readily manipulated mathematically. The estimated amount of money spent on snack items weekly coupled with the age question asked above provides a direct link between demographic and product sales volume. The time period can be increased or decreased; however recalling the amount of money spent over more than a week would be difficult for the caller. Also, some callers may be embarrassed by the amount of money they spend and be reluctant to provide such information. In any case, the estimated amount of money spent weekly on snack items in the form described is a continuous variable. Finally, questioning callers of their preference to sweet or salty snack items provides product development with guidance in introducing new items and marketing with an indicator of which products may be preferred and marketed more aggressively. This is a discrete qualitative variable rather than quantitative, but it is significant in defining the preferences of callers towards snack products. Summary With the acquisition of Company W by WidgCorp, all corporate functions will be merged. Company W is not familiar with statistical methods used in presenting relevant information to executive management. To assist marketing, this report suggests three different questions that could be ask of callers to the 1-800 phone bank in order to monitor their behavior with respect to the snack food category. The report goes on to describe whether the data associated with the questions is discrete or continuous.

Homework

Lets assume that an? uncle of yours was injured? on? 1/1/05? in an automobile accident. The accident was serious, it was the other drivers fault, and as the result of the accident your uncle will not be able to return to his medical practice where he earned $210,000 during calendar year 2004. Your uncles accident occurred on his? 60th birthday (some birthday) and he planned (prior to the accident) to work another eight years (until the end of 2012). ? 
Your uncle has sustained a large? economic loss because he can no longer count on his substantial earnings from his medical practice. To recover his economic loss, your uncle files suit against the other driver and his insurance company in Wisconsin Civil Court. The case comes to trial at the end of this month, but? your uncle? has? just received a settlement offer from the? insurance company of $2,000,000 to compensate him for his loss of past (2005) and future (2006-2012)? earning capacity. Your uncle seeks your advice in evaluating the settlement offer. In particular, he asks you whether $2,000,000 meets the standard required in Wisconsin Civil Court “that all future economic damages be expressed in? present value terms”. [You should know also that the convention in these legal proceedings is to use the Treasury bond rate as the discount rate.]
To give your uncle the advice he seeks you must calcuate the present value of his? expected earnings for the years 2005-2012.? In? making this calculation, assume the following:? a) Your uncle (absent the accident) would have continued to work full time in his medical practice from the date of the accident (1/1/05 until his projected retirement on 12/31/2012. b) Your uncle earned $210,000 in 2004 and expected to have his earnings increase in 2005 and each future year by 8% per year. c) Use 4.5% as the annual discount rate to discount projected future earnings to present value. [4.5% is the approximate current yield of U.S. Treasury bonds maturing in 2012.]
1. Explain/show how you would set up the present value calcuation in your uncles case. What is the present value of his lost expected earnings if we use 4.5% as the discount rate
2. Does the $2,000,000 settlement offer? equal or exceed the full present value of the loss of earnings sustained by your uncle Ignoring the cost of the trial (and the chance that the jury might not find in his favor) should he accept this settlement
3.? Does your answer change if we were to use 7.0 percent as the discount rate Be specific.
[Hints: To ease the computational busy work in this problem, please be advised of the following:
The present value of $1 discounted at 4.5% (and received at the? end of each of the following years) is:
2005? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $1.00
2006? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? $.9569
2007? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.9157
2008? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.8763
2009? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.8386
2010? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.8025
2011? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.7679
2012? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.7348The present value of $1 discounted at 7% (and received at the end of each of the following years) is:
2005? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $1.00
2006? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.9346
2007? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? $.8734
2008? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.8163
2009? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.7629
2010? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.7130
2011? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.6663
2012? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? $.6227
[Note in both cases that income that would have been received? during (or before) the current year? is not reduced in the present value calculation.]
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Perhaps the following will help you sort this out:

Below is the general form of the present value formula. This is simply the formula that Mankiw presents on pages 176 and 177, but written for the specific circumstance of:

Income to be received in each future year for? 7 years, discounted at 4.5% per annum.

??? PV = (income in year 1)/(1.045)1 + (income in year 2)/(1.045)2 + (income in year 3)/(1.045)3 + (income in year 4)/(1.045)4 + (income in year 5)/(1.045)5 + (income in year 6)/(1.045)6 + (income in year 7)/(1.045)7

If we were to rewrite this expression using a discount rate of 7%, we would write:

??? PV = (income in year 1)/(1.07)1 + (income in year 2)/(1.07)2 + (income in year 3)/(1.07)3 + (income in year 4)/(1.07)4 + (income in year 5)/(1.07)5 + (income in year 6)/(1.07)6 + (income in year 7)/(1.07)7

The information provided in your assignment for this week (see below) just performs these individual calculations for you (on the assumption of $1 received at the end of? each future year).

Thus (using the 4.5% case), if you want to calculate the present value of $300,000 received in 2008, the PV = $300,000*.8763 = $262,890

The same calculation using a 7% discount rate is: $300,000*.8163 = $244,890

This example illustrates a very important result: other things being equal, the present value of any sum of money to be received in the future will vary inversely with the discount rate. The higher the discount rate, the lower the present value. This explains why the stock market generally declines when interest rates rise and why housing prices decline when mortgage rates rise, etc.

The present value of $1 discounted at 4.5% (and received at the? end of each of the following years) is:
2005? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $1.00 ? ?  = $1/ (1.045)0
2006? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? $.9569? ? ? = $1/ (1.045)1
2007? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.9157?  = $1/ (1.045)2
2008? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.8763?  = $1/ (1.045)3
2009? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.8386?  = $1/ (1.045)4
2010? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.8025?  = $1/ (1.045)5
2011? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.7679?  = $1/ (1.045)6
2012? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.7348?  = $1/ (1.045)7
The present value of $1 discounted at 7% (and received at the end of each of the following years) is:
2005? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $1.00? ? ?  = $1/ (1.07)0
2006? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.9346?  = $1/ (1.07)1
2007? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? $.8734? ? ? ?  = $1/ (1.07)2
2008? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.8163?  = $1/ (1.07)3
2009? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.7629?  = $1/ (1.07)4
2010? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.7130?  = $1/ (1.07)5
2011? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  $.6663?  = $1/ (1.07)6
2012? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? $.6227? ? ? ?  = $1/ (1.07)7
Let me know if you are still having trouble with any of this.


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The following template may be of some assistance in setting this problem up Chapter 9 Assignment Template

Concepts and Principles of Iqa

The key concepts and principles of internal quality assurance of assessmentIn carrying out the internal quality assurance of assessment I consider the whole process of assessment and reflect that in my planning.The main areas I need to consider are: ??? the number of assessors
??? the number of candidates they each have
??? the qualifications and awards that are being delivered
??? the experience and competence of the assessor
??? planning to sample a range of evidence and a number of units
??? planning sampling to be consistent for the duration of the qualification
??? ensuring standardisation activities are planned and carried out.
I have created a sampling planner which allows me to plan internal quality assurance of assessment. I use the planner to record the name of the assessor, the names of the learners and the units they are doing. I also record details such as the level of experience of the assessor, their caseload, any factors that may need to be considered in the internal quality assurance such as reasons that a portfolio may need sampling on a more regular basis. This could be for a number of reasons; a new qualification, an unqualified assessor, a unit that may have presented a challenge in gathering evidence, a learner or assessor experiencing difficulties. This information is the rationale behind the frequency of interim sampling and level of support which I may need to provide to assessors.I try to ensure I plan sampling at appropriate and consistent intervals, and work to the company guideline which is ________.
I ensure that I use this as a guide only, so as not to over look any areas of concern, and I remain flexible to meet the needs of the assessors and candidates.In order to provide adequate support for the assessors I ensure I maintain regular communication first and foremost. I speak to them at least weekly for an informal chat about how they are getting on with their learners. If there should be any problems or challenges I offer advice and guidance. A situation arose in the past when an assessor mentioned she was having trouble in getting one or two of the learners to commit to the qualification and complete work in their own time. She explained that one learner in particular had produced some great evidence but only did so during their meetings. Because of constraints of time and other work commitments it wasn??™t possible to ensure that the learner progressed as quickly as they should do, if gathering evidence only at meetings. I suggested that she discuss with the learner the possibility of him coming in to the office to do his work (rather than try and do it when he was on a shift or at home with the distractions they can bring). This would mean that he would be in an environment where he had less distraction, information and resources on hand to possibly use as evidence as well as support from myself if he wanted it. The assessor agreed and spoke to the learner, who thought this was a good idea and put it into practice. I spoke to the assessor a few weeks later who fed back to me that this change had been very effective and the learner was progress was improving.I also have more formal meetings with the assessors during which we use the time to discuss the progress of each learner and any issues they have with assessment or learning. I give them information on any new policies or procedures, or ideas I have for best practice. I try to get as much input as I can from them also. The assessment centre is relatively new and I feel that feedback from the whole team is vital to ensure we are constantly improving and developing.
I plan the formal meetings to take place around every 6 ??“ 8 weeks, or more frequently depending on the needs or the assessor. I record the main areas of discussion including action points for both parties, and we review this at the next meeting.Each time I carry out a sample of a portfolio I provide written feedback to the assessor. I use a checklist as the basis for the sampling and give more detailed feedback and action points, which I also discuss verbally with the assessor to make sure they have a good understanding of it. It is important I ensure my feedback is based primarily around the assessors practice and assessment decisions and not around the evidence the learner has produced ??“ my role when sampling is not to second-line assess the evidence. That said, if there is a concern around the evidence then I will highlight this to the assessor.Other methods I am planning to use, or have used, to support assessors are through training and development activities, both 1-1 or group based. I feel that standardisation meetings are also invaluable development activities, providing opportunities for assessors to share best practice, ask questions and gain useful knowledge that they can apply to their assessment practice.
In the past, some issues or topics have been raised at standardisations that I have felt would be good to address at a separate workshop for assessors, so I have begun to think about planning these too. I have also carried out 1- 1 support visits with assessors.
I believe that a strong level of support will identify issues and concerns early on, support individuals to build upon their knowledge and skills improving the practice of the assessor and assessment team, increase confidence and productivity and benefit the learner by providing them with a positive learning experience.

Homework

1. Give an an example for each Development of consumer behavior research approach from the hospitality industry. Positivist approach:
You got 2 hotels beside each other. They give the same service in every aspect. One has lower prices. Guests are going to choose the one is cheaper. The decision made on pure logic.In Mexico on the beach we had 2 companies to provide the wave runners. The one , who offers the rent for cheaper, choose the people.Interpretevist approach:
People were looking for me to teach them to dive because they heard about me through their friends. They even paid 40% more just because they heard I am safer.Post modern approach:
In Mexico we had this party boat. We provided 3 different menus. 1 was vegetarian; the other was steak the third was with lobster. Almost everybody was choosing the lobster. It is because in their mind was that it is something special ???upper-class???. A lot of them came to this tour because they can eat lobster.A lot of tours are promoted as a great ultimate adventure: jungle tours, become a dolphin trainer, become a Caribbean pirate. Rent a yacht and enjoy the life of a rock star etc..2. Give an example for a hospitality service. Explain why is it a service using the five traditionally stated characteristics of services.DIVINGIntangibility: < Inability to touch an item: you cannot touch it < Consumers can only experience the services performance: You feel it only when you are diving < Services are an abstract concept for consumers, meaning that they are highly subjective: Some people just freak out from depth, the fact that you are breathing through a hoseInseparability: < No distinction between delivery and use as services are produced and consumed simultaneously :You consume when you dive < Customer can - through the service encounter ??“ become part of the service: When I am teaching in the pool other people are coming by and join us because they see something is going on.Heterogeneity: < Hospitality services are produced by individuals and consumed by individuals: As hospitality services are performed it is difficult to conclude with any certainty that people will perform in the same way during an two service encounters: I am unable to give the some experience because for example I cannot guarantee that the some fishes or animals will swim by.Perishability: < Services cannot be stored ??“ unused services are lost forever: I cannot store the diving. If somebody did not showed up for the 8 o??™clock trip on time he lost this service. < Demand fluctuations cannot be managed the same way as with goods: Christmas we are overbooked. In may we do not have enough job.Ownership: < The customer gains access only to the activity or facility, not gaining ownership of anything at the end of the transaction. They dive, they use dive equipment, rent tank but at the end they stay only with the experience < Services are seen to offer satisfaction rather than tangible items: They live most of the time happy.3. Apply the dimensions which impact on consumer behavior in hospitality on a Car rental businessTime: When you rent a car you rented eat least for a day. That is a long time a lot of things can go wrong. The car itself can have a problem, the agent forget to make the reservation etc.. Physical proximity: You can rent a car in different ways. Internet, telephone, in hotel are agents or through your travel agent. Participation: You have to drive the car and to put the gas in it otherwise they charge you more Degree of involvement: Costumer gets involved: in Mexico to rent a jeep or a boogie and drive around, rent a limousine for special occasion. Degree of customization, degree to which a service can be customized: Different type, size and color cars. They can offer a businessman a limo, jeep to young people, minivan to a family etc.. Beside that with air-conditioning, stereo, color, brand etc.. Service provider. < The offering is the employee < The employees are seen by consumers as embodying the attributes of the organization Punctuality, cleaning, how nice the staff, greet the people; offer tee, additional information about destination, special costumes of this particular place. It can be everything perfect ,but employee is rude you loose the costumer.

Concept of Nature

Richard Anderson IV
Thursday October 13th, 2011
LARCH 361 Experience of Place Autumn 2011Mini-Project #2: Concept Model of NatureNature Concept Statement
Creating a concept of nature requires a broad and creative sense on exactly what we need to create to supply the human need within a given space. When you take a look at the definition of physical nature around us, it states; ???Nature, in the broadest sense, is equivalent to the? natural world,? physical world, or? material world. Nature refers to the? phenomena? of the physical world, and also to? life? in general??? this definition is key in creating a model of the physical, natural, or material world that surrounds us all. Nature can also be associated with wildlife, weather, and geology. All things associated with wildlife include grass, trees, animals, and water. All of these factors are somehow linked and related to ???nature??? which brings a very important connection when creating a concept model of nature. In my creation I wanted to implement all these details of ???nature??? within the limited space. Being within the constraints of Seattle, in my opinion, the wildlife factor of nature is a diminishing factor as our city begins to grow especially in the downtown area. However, there may be many tourist attractions and shopping centers the lack of public space is abundant.
My concept model focused on the limited amount of public space within the downtown area and created a public park that hits all the factors of our physical, natural, and material world along with our wildlife and environment. Inner-city parks are very rare with the creation of the suburb. The downtown area takes out the values of physical space, wildlife, and private sanctuaries that are usually involved in the suburbs. Creating an inner-city park that gives people their own private physical space along with wildlife brings a more emotional and vibrant environment for a downtown area that creates social interactions within a space. The inner-city park will be place in a high traffic area to influence social interaction amongst peers. Thus the park will sit about seven to ten feet below street surface. The reasoning for dropping the park infuses privacy and interaction to create a better human experience. This is especially useful in a hilly area such as downtown Seattle for better angles of sunlight within the landscape to create pleasant emotions and relaxation. There will be stadium-like seating to create multiple types of interactions. These interactions can include small groups from 2-3 people, or even large group ranging anywhere from 4-7 people. In front of the stadium seating will continue the ???park??? portion of the concept with green lawns and tree??™s to create a wildlife effect on the surrounding area. Trails and benches will add to the emotions of a small vacation when you step into the inner-city park but still keeping the urban feeling of being the big city. The surrounding areas to some extent should be open to the sunlight or daylight during most of the day. The sunlight further extends a social environment with human nature being attracted to places with sunlight. Including a courtyard would be the last part to complete the social justice that is associated with the human experience. The courtyard would be the meeting and greeting sanction of the site to create social interactions. With surrounding small food markets for a quick bite will spare more attention. Placing this area on the other area separate of the park is key to keep the separation of privacy and social areas of the landscape. Symbolically this park can create a peaceful sanctuary for the early morning business man before work, a quick lunch break getaway, or an effective area for a pleasant lunchtime date. The environmental and wildlife aspects of the space within an inner city space should create a belonging and social connectedness amongst the individuals in the city.
Materials used for the concept model revolved around staying green and our whole general idea of bringing wildlife into the physical space of the city. Most of the materials used came from either outside or where easily accessible from my house, easily reusable and recyclable. This is to keep the nature aspect of staying environmentally friendly while creating the concept. My materials are relatively normal, and don??™t exactly have and exact explanation the overlying concept, however giving you a physical description of the concept. There will be a significant use of two dimensional pictures to assist the user??™s mental concept on the usage of space, creating a viewing window to give the user a greater depth and view of the landscape model. The viewing window gives a greater interpretation of the model and helps comprehend the piece.
The concept model of nature created started from the basis of Hester??™s ???Sacred spaces and everyday life: A return to Manteo??? and his basis of creating a place attachment with design and economic development. By creating the spatial value of a park within an inner-city is very vital to creating human emotions and enjoyable settings. Within the downtown urban setting thins are more vertical than horizontal creating a crunched feeling. Grass filled areas with trees reflecting from sunlight give the wildlife feeling of being free which creates more social settings amongst people. The value of social patterns and collective memory come into play with the courtyard. The courtyard is an open space for people to meet and great which installs a memory ground for meeting places within the human. This creates more frequent peer interactions and more social functions within a public space. The place attachment and memory has a positive change connected to those social gatherings within a courtyard setting. In Howard Frumkin??™s article ???Beyond Toxicity; Human Health and the Natural Environment??? it states, ???Many people appreciate a walk in the park, or the sound of a bird??™s song, or the sight of ocean waves lapping at the seashore…Wilderness experiences??”entering the landscape rather than viewing it??”may also be therapeutic. David Cumes 55,56 has described ???wilderness rapture,??? including self-awareness; feelings of awe, wonder, and humility; a sense of comfort in and connection to nature and increased appreciation of others??? These are all factors that are included within the concept model. The park creates all these feelings of humility and comfort that is separate from the big city lifestyle and the symbolic factor of putting a small park in a big city setting creates an oasis for humans to create their own interaction.

Homework

Homework. We all hate it. It??™s stressful, tiring and can ruin your lifestyle. When a student comes home after 6 and a ? hours of school, dragging a bag full of homework which would take you hour after hour of staring at a piece of paper or a computer screen, it can really frustrate you and get under your skin. Yes, homework is important though, it helps you reinforce and maintain what you learnt in class, but too much isn??™t helpful at all. After an hour of homework, it is tested and proven that students start to slack off, becoming uninterested in the topic and start to forget what they??™re doing and their mind wonders off. This, in the long term, affects your marks and you forget more than what you remember. This also limits you, as a student, your freedom. You have less time for your own personal business. Shouldn??™t we, as students, have a life outside of school We should have time for our own business like spending time with friends and family, sports and other hobbies you might have. If you have a part time job or contribute to community service, you will have to pre-organise YOUR lifestyle so you don??™t struggle for the future. Lack of sleep is also another issue. Homework usually keeps students studying late into the night. Students then wake up the next morning without the natural 8 hour sleep you should normally have. In class, they become drowsy and the teacher??™s dictation goes in one ear and out the other. Homework can also affect you mentally. When homework stresses you bad enough, you start to complete your homework quickly, not checking if your answers are right or wrong, or you start copying other students work. This happens because your mind is only reading one message ??? The less homework, the less stress???. Usually when a teacher assigns too much homework, you don??™t learn anything. Cutting down homework is a simple and effective way for students to take in more information and also maintain it. This may mean you might work slower in class but you would get more information put in in the long term.

Concept of Health, Ill and Treatment

C HAPTER-IIntroductionThe World Health Organisation (WHO) has defined health as a state of complete
physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or
infirmity (WHO; 1997). Such a definition could be seen as keeping with what has
already been r ecoyised i n the traditional Indian medicine viz. that physical wellbeing alone cannot ensure good health. However, medicine, as it comes to be
practiced i n modem times, laid an emphasis on curing illness, and often overlooked
the psychological aspect and social dimension of health.
The concept of health, disease and treatment vary according to the culture of a
particular area. Moreover, a particular culture of tribal area is guided by the
traditionally laid-down customs and each member ofthe culture is ideally expected
to confbrm to it.Disease and health are universal experiences, which are as old as human is. As our
primitive ancestors evolved i n to human forms, so were the disease they brought
with them and those they acquired during the evolution became social and cultural
facts as well as patholoccal states. For human being i n a given set up, disease
threatens not only ones state of well-being and that of other people i n the group,
but also it threatens, the very integrity of the community as a whole. Disease
according to modem science is only a departure from a state of health and more
frequently, a kind of disturbance i n the health of lbody to which any particular case
of sickness attributed. Events like death and occurrence of the disease lead to heavy expenses and adverse
psychological effects. I n every culture there is a repository of values and belief
systems built around important life experiences, viz. birth, illness, death and disease
reduces the strength of the people to hunt or gather food, to a b~iculture nd all other
a
vital occupational and necessary activities. Chief priest, shaman, ojha, sorcerer and
the traditional medical practitioner had to find a means to bail the victim out o ftheir
misery, otherwise they loses the status according to their abilities in the community.
Traditional way of treatment is inevitable among the tribal people although modem
treatment is applied in different circumstances. Traditional medicine can be stated
as the some total of all knowledge and practices, whether explicable or not used in
diagnosis. prevention and elimination of physical, mental or social imbalance and
relying exclusive on practical experiences and observation handed down from
generation to generation, whether verbally or in writing.The traditional medicine thus inherited is of various kinds viz. Folk medicine,
Ethnoniedicine, Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Nature care. All systems differ from
each other i n term of tools, techniques. ideas and beliefs. lnspite o f these d i t h e n t
people belonging in to all sections oCthe population resort to the use of the elements
o f these. varied system.1.1.1 Folk Medicine: T he study of indigenous medical features of a particular
community is known as ethnomedicine. It is also known as folk medicine.
popular medicine and popular health culture (Polgar; 1962). The subject of
ethnomedicine focuses on the nature of illness as it is conceived by native in their
own ways by their criteria of classification of diseases, the causes, the cures, type of
therapists and healers who seek to alleviate illness and their skills and social roles
preventive measures, the relation between medicine and religion, cultural aspect of
ethnomedicine and also ethnopsychiatry (Huges; 1968 and Foster; 1978). Cultural practices hold the key to a great deal of folk and this is especially true of
preventive medicines that although oriented to different social process, have unique
functional implication for health. Thus remarkable hygienic purposes are served by
many religious and magical practices such avoiding the visit to a house where some
one has passed away, theories of contagious a “bad body humors” which necessitate
daily bathing, distinction of hot and cold food and water requires boiling or
hiding of bodily waste for of their use by sorcerers of witches.
The causation and grammar of folk medicine is unique and is based on wrath of
Gods evil spirits, magic and witchcraft. It has it diagnostic tool and techniques,
which can heavily depend on divination. Treatment is through propitiation of Gods,
exorcism, counter-magic, use of charms, fetishes and amulets and administration of
herbal preparations.
1.1.2 T raditional Indian Medicine: The traditional I nd~anmedicine consists ofAyurveda, Siddha, Unani and therapies such as Yoga and Naturopathy. These
systems are indigenous and through over the years become a part o f Indian
tradition. Prior to the advent of modem medicine, these system had, for centuries,
catered to the health care needs of the people; these system are widely used even
today because their practitioners are acceptable both geographically and culturally,
are accessible and their service and drugs are affordable.
1 .1.2.1 The Ayurvedo: Ayrveda is reckoned as a portion of the Forth Veda or theAdharvana and has been considered the oldest work on Hindu medicine. Although
this is claimed by the Aryans as theirs, neither its author nor the.period in which it
was written is known; and only fragments of it have come down to us embodied in
the certain commentaries of subsequent writers. The modem Hindu ascribe its
authorship to their Gods, some to Brahma and others to Siva but in their philosophical writings they are all attributed only to Siva, who in this respect is
known as Vaidiswar and Mundehwar (Gods of Medical and Medicine).
It is not clear how the human race had access to it as many and various are the
legends current about i t. I t is said that, in Kaliyuga, the world would become
reprobate and the corruption of the human race will be such as to necessitate a great
curtailment of life and to leave the people embittered by numerous ailments. This
legend is supposed to indicate the epoch of Ayurveda as intermediate between the
c
vedic and the Brahminical times- which is about the 9″ or the l ouh entury B.C.
1 .1.2.2 The ( Inant: The Arabians had cultivated the science and art of medicine at avery early period, but very little information is known regarding any of their
physicians or psychiatrists of repute. The Arabic writers of the 7h and the 8″
century A.D. were mostly native of Syria, who visited India on many occasions and
took away with them many Hindu works, which they translated in to Arabic and
Persian languages. They were avowed borrowers of science and were also in the
habit of looking forward to the increase of their stock of knowledge by translating
into their own lanbwage some of the medical- theological compositions of the
Indian physicians. Professor Wilson is of the opinion that they followed the Hindu
works on medicine more closely rather than of the early Greeks.1.1.2.3 The Siddha: The word Siddha comes from the word siddhi which means
object to be attained or”perfection or heavenly bliss”. Siddhi generally refers toAshtama, siddhi i.e. the eight great supernatural powers which are enumerated a s
Anima, etc. Those who attained or achieved the above powers are known a s
s iddhan. Siddhis are also constructed as powers that are attained by birth
(according to their previous karma), by chemical means or power of words or by
mortification or through eoncentration. 1.1.2.-I Naturopothy und Y o p Medicine: This could be taken as integration of folkmedicine, ayurvedic medicine as well as Siddha medicine. The concept was
popularised by Gandhiji through personal experiences and observances with nature
care This system of health care includes indigenous medicine, dietary regulation,
yogic exercise relating to the specific areas of bodies as well as external application
like mind, bath, sun bath, body massage as well as exercise on mental
concentration. These methods have been very popular in the west and in the
Europcan countries in the last few decades.1.2 Concept of Medical Anthropology:
Anthropology combines in one discipline, the approaches of both biological and
social sciences. In short, anthropology is a well-defined study of physical, social
and cultural aspects of man.
Medical sciences have two subdivisions:
(a) Aet~ological nd therapeutic activities: and
a
(b) Management and dispensing of Medical care.Aetiological and therapeutic area deals with the task of identifying and explaining
scientifically established causes for the occurrence of diseases and formulation of
proper therapeutic procedure as treatment. This area has fixed theory of disease,
therapeutic diagnosis, pharmacopoeia and surgical procedures.
The second sub-division of medical science concerns it self with the practical
application of scientific knowledge dealing with the task of distribution, resourses,
allocation and medical care delivery.The practice of medicine is not a personalaffair. At a very superficial level, it involves interacting between the giver
(Governmenthospital, dispensary, doctor, paramedical) and the taker (community, family patient). This interaction is a social interaction, which is governed by some
d eal norms, rules. obligations and expectations.1.3 Definition qf M edical Anthropology:Etymologically, thc word anthropoloby is derived from the Greek system Anthropo(Men) noun ending – logy (Science). Its literal meaning therefore, is Science of
Man: ( B eak; 1971).
Medical anthropology is not only limited to the extent of providing fruitful
strategies to the health care planners. It has also contributed greatly in the theory
building process of general anthropology too . .. Medical Anthropology is not only a
way of viewing the state of health and disease in a society but a way of viewing
society i t s elf(Lieben; 1974).
Many definition of medical a nthroploby have been offered. One of the broadest,
yet most concise, is contained within the mission statement of the Society of
medical A nthroplogys journal, the Medical Anthropoloby Qwarterly. It defines
medical anthropoloby a s a field that includes:-. . . …. ,411 inquiries in to health, disease, illness and sickness i human
n
individual and populations that are undertaken from the holistic and crosscultural perspective distinctive of anthropology as a discipline- that is, with
an awareness of species, biological, cultural, linguistic and historical
conformity and variation. It encompasses studies of ethnomedicine,
epidemiology, maternal and child health, population, nutrition, human
development in relation to health and disease, healthxare providers and services, public health, health policy and the language and speech of h ealth
and healthcare. ( Med~cal nthropology Quarterly; September 2001).
A1.4 Applied Anthropology in Medicine:Medical anthropoloby is a flourishing branch of anthropoloby and it has emerged as
one of the most indispensable areas of anthropological research. The term medical
anthropology has come into being only i n the 1960s and since then cultural
anthropologist has started emphasising the important of social and cultural aspect of
health and medicine i n their studies. The new label medical anthropology permits
the researchers in studying both theoretical and applied aspect of the field. Medical
sociology and medical anthropology have contributed to a greater awareness of
disease and medicine.f4asan (1975) rightfully claims that medical anthropology has a larger and broader
base than estimated by Foster. He states Anthropoloby combines in one discipline,
“the approzches of the biological science, the social science and humanities. Thus,
the biological and ecological approaches are common to anthropoloby; medicine
and health provide valuable grounds for collaboration between medical scientists,
health professionals and anthropologist. Without this broad bio-cultural approach,
the use of the ecological framework has made an initial input in the medical
anthropological area”.1.5 The Role of Social and Cultural Anthropology in Health Care:
Social and cultural Anthropology studies the origins and histories of Mans
societies and their culture. It is concerned with the evolution and development of
culture whether it belongs to the Stone Age ancestor or to the urban societies. Culture 1s the product of agro-facts (products of industry), so&-facts(socialorganisation), and mentifacts (language, religion, art and so on).
For the treatment of different disease medicine has been practiced one way or the
other since man become a natural animal. In most culture, there is a specialist who
treats illness, injury and disease and quite frequently this person corresponds to the
leader of religious practices. The medico-religious practitioner is also considered to
be a practitioner of magic, mantric or witchcraft traditionally and he was a man of
cultural mind endowed with many abilities and he was dedicated to his vocation.
Throughout the ages man has been devising ways and means of curing for the sick
in the community.Every culture, irrespective of its simplicity and complexity, has its own beliefs and
practices regarding health and disease and the way of treatment. The role of
different traditional practitioners who have been providing health care to their
community for years have stood the test o ftime. Traditional medical practices have
survived even in the midst of some of the most sophisticated and advanced medical
thcrapy. Medicine and disease have had an undeniable effect on the history and
culture of mankind. Since man is a social and cultural being, every known human
society has developed a pharmacopoeia and a therapy- be it magico-religious,
secular or empirical or scientific. In order to understand a total culture of a
particular period, i t is necessary to pay attention to asses the health status of human
group involved. This is done through collecting evidence of the disease, treatment,
medical behaviour of that period. As a total study of man, medical anthropology has
contributed valuable techniques; concepts and scientific facts to several branches of
medicine and public health care delivery systems. The Indian tribal societies vary from state to state and also region due to their
ecological, economic, ethnic and other multivariate socio-cultural factors. The
influence of culture on dtseasc occurrence in ecosystem includes human beings in
contingent upon a variety of factors within culturally oriented behaviour.
The concept of health is part of a tripolar conceptualisation, as the term denotes:
(a) A balance state of body; (b) mind and (c) divine soul that may be elaborated as:(a) Body [Physical health- Health]
(b) Mind [Mental health- Happiness]
(c) Soul [Social health- Alma- invisible organisation that operates body and mind]
According to Siddhars ancient theory of medical philosophy, disease in humans
does not originate in the self, but terms of macro-cosmic elements. ( Punch hoorhsfive elements, nine planets, twenty seven stars through the zodical s i p with the
help of spiritual power of ohm in the vital air region).
The force of any change in the macrocosm (ecosystem of the external world) has its
corresponding change in the human organism to microcosnl (biological system of
internal body) through the doctrine of human patholoby. Tridosa theory is the
derangement of three humors in accordance with the traditional system of Siddha,
Ayurveda and Unani.1.6 Health and Indigenous Knowledge:
The role of science is to help mankind to meet the various demands exploiting the
natural resources in the best possible way without adversely affecting the
environment. Thus in the given socio-economic and historical context, the knowledge to make tire is equally significant and important like many of the
present day scientitic innovations. In most societies, there dose exist a rich body of
scientitic knowledge based on the demands of the concerned societies.
In the past, that knowledge was based on oral and almost always transmitted
verbally from one generation to other. Such knowledge is in fact still used today in
many areas all over the world in the day to day living of many indigenous people.
In several parts of Asia, apart from the folk traditions there is also a parallel
classical tradition of knowledge. These classical knowledge systems have very
sophisticated theoretical foundations and are codified and documented in the
thousand of Manu-scripts. They represent non- western knowledge system of the
world and very different in their world- view, concepts and principals from the
western knowledge systems. Traditional knowledge in medicine and health has
been time tested over generations. It is a holistic concept covering a broad base
from diseasc prevention, hcalth promotion and healing. It has and can deal with
health problems ranging from the common cold, air and water borne diseases to
orthopedics and other complicated cases.This system is also based on a wide range of biological resources using thousand of
plant species, hundred of animal species and animal parts, various minerals and
mental sources. Unfortunately, over the years traditional knowledge and skills have
becn neglected and a prejudice has developed towards these non-western sciences.
This prejudice has been engineered and encouraged by powerful nations,
multinationals in order to subjugate non-western cultures.1.6.1 Health and Government Policy: (Health Care and Government Plan):
Improvement in the health status of the population has been one of the major thrust
areas for the social development programmes of the country. This was to be achieved through improving the access to and utilisation of health services with
special focus on under – served and underprivileged segments of the population.
Over the last five decades, India has built up a vast health infrastructure and
manpower at primary, secondary and tcrtiary carc in government, voluntary and
privatesectors.Theseinstitutionsarcmannedbyprofessionalsandparaprofcssionals traincd in the medical colleges in modem medicine, ISM,
Homoeopathy and paraprofessional training institutions. The population has
become aware of the benefits of health related technologies for the prevention, early
diagnosis and effective treatment for a wide variety of illness and accessed
available services. Technological advances and improvement i n access to healthcare
technologies, which were relatively inexpensive and easy to implement, had
resulted in substantial improvement in health indices of the population and a steep
decline in mortality. The extent of access and to utilisation of the healthcare varied
substantially between states, districts, and different segments of society; this is to a
large extent: is responsible for substantial differences between state in health
indices of the population.During the 90s, the mortality rates flattened; country entered an era of dual disease
burden. On one side there are communiczble diseases which have become more
difficult to combat due to insecticide resistance among vectors, resistant to
antibodies in many bacteria and emergence of new diseases such as HIV for which
there is no therapy; on the other side increasing longevity and the changes in life
style have resulted i n the increasing prevalence of non communicable diseases.
Under nutrition and micro-nutrient deficiencies and associated health problems
consist with increasing prevalence of obesity and life style related noncommunicable diseases. Unlike the earlier era, the technologies for diagnosis and
therapy are becoming increasingly complex and are expensive. It is likely that
larger investment in health will be needed even to maintain the current health status, co~nmunicablediseases are expansive and this will inevitably lead to escalating
health carc costs.1.7 Tribal Health in India:When onc is concerned with the concept of health among the tribal people i n lndia
it is perhaps as well appropriate to be clear about what is generally meant byhealth. I n the context of Indian socio-economic constraints, it may be then
realistic to handle the concept of health in a bi-polar nexus. A s disease and infirmity
has been some times distinguished from unspecified ” illness”. ” Illth” may be stand
for any amiction whether disease or infirmity or just illness. Of course amiction
has to be understood i n such a manner that there might be a conceived amiction
without having to undergo perceptible pain or suffering. And we have also to make
i t clear the 111th is an event that happens to people, and that it is not usuallymotivated or contrived.
The concept of medicine, health and disease are largely a product of post- 19″
century scientific developments. Ackerknecht (1942) commented that to a seventh
century European, American-Indian medicine would not have seemed”strangeprimitive”, i n a much as cupping, building, purging, herbal remedies, somc forms
s
of surgery and even some exorcism, so also some of the associated beliefs andmystical theories about the causation of illness and the rules of healthv living would
have been common to both (Cf. Fortes, i n London ed; p-xii). I n the same vain, it
may be visualised the concept of health and disease etc. of the general unschooled
rural Indians as not sipificantly different from those of the so-called tribal people
of India. This is not to deny that some unique conceptions do not characterised the
hcalth concepts of some individual tribal groups i n different eco-historical cultural
z.ones of lndia. While still on the problems encountered i n developing satisfactory or adequate concepts, it may has to identify the medically viable and bioecologically feasible indices to define various grades of health status, nutritional
status, and determine the standards of normality of the general population of India
i n body temperalurc, blood pressure and other physiological conditions etc. Thesehave to be standardised, again in regard to tribal people of India subsisting mainly
on roots, tubers, honcy and fruits through food gathering, other depending on
cereals, pulses and vegetables for about half of the years, and again those others
subsisting on cereals and pulses etc. through out thc year, with their habitant in
coastal place or at various altitudes in hills and forest or in deserts.IJnfortunately, there is practically nothing written on the concept of health of the
tribal group of India. There are, if at all, some references to the causes, varieties and
treatment of diseases, and to the cultural specialists dealing with these diseases.
This concern is also a new fangled devclopment since the emergence of Medical
Anthropoloby and Medical Sociology, especially after the 1950s. T he cursory
reporting on treatment of sickness as covered in the monographs of tribes and the
sketchy or tangential references to sickness in the context of sections on religion
and magic in the famous surveys of tribes and castes undertaken by the British
civilians during the 1″ and 2″d decades of the last century, hardly provided adequate
material in quantity and quality to do justice to this topic.1.8 Some Important Concepts and Definitions:
1.8.1 T ribal C on~munities: he term TRIBE is defined as a group of people in a
T
primitive stage of development, living with in a definite area. They have a different
dialect, cultural homogeneity and unifying social organisation. The members of the
tribe acknowledge the authority of a chief and usually regard themselves as having common ancestors. The soc~o-culturalback ground, economic status, ecological
c ond~t~on the phys~olog~cal
and
structures of the tribals vary from one another.
1.8.2 Shaman: The shaman like the physician, tried to cure his patients by
correcting the causes of his illness. Inline with his cultures concept of disease, this
cure may involve not only the administrative of the therapeutic agents but provision
of the means for confession, atonement, restoration, into the good grace of the
family and tribal intercession with the world of the spirit. The Shamans role may
thus involve aspects of the roles of the physician, magician, priest, moral arbiter,
representative of groups world view and agents of social control.
1.8.3 Witchcraft: The witch doctor had an apprentice or an heir apparent. He
guarded and carried the medicine mans herbs, divining apparatus, and alI the other
items involved in the art of healing. Upon the death of the witch doctor, the
apprentice or his close followers always inherited his healing powers.
1.8.4 Ojha: In the Indian villages and specifically among the tribals, o jha is a kind
of healer for coping with the misfortunes at different circumstances. Remedy from
the capturing of ghost and snake biting, are the two major fields of them. Various
types of materials viz. poison sucking stone, mastered, turmeric, vermilion, are used
by them through spell of incantation. The role of o jha is very crucial i n the day-today village life of India. They are specially trained by their ancestor to do this type
o fjob and the whole technique is transmitted verbally from one to other generation.
1.8.5 Traditional Medicine: Traditional medicine could be defined in a number of
ways taking into account the concepts and practices; information about which could
be gathered, analysed, evaluated and documented for posterity. The system is so
comprehensive that it is very difficult to put the form in a particular slot of medical
science. I t mainly centers around two system of traditional medicine broadly: ( 1) Small and indigcnous traditional medicme which include mostly folk system
based on socio-cultural aspects as well as magico-religious aspects of smaller
groups of people.
( 2) T he second system is called the great traditional medicine or system based onconcept o fayurvedic, unani, siddha, nature care and yoga medical system.
1.8.6 T raditional Healing Practices: Every traditional society has its own method
of conceptualisation, diagnosis and treatment of diseases based on the rational
principles and objective factors in a scientific manner within the s ociocultural
background ofarticular rural and tribal communities.Simple, safe, inexpensive, non-toxic and time-tested remedies existed for the
alleviation of disease and disability. To obtain the secrets of traditional medicine,
every community irrespective of its simplicity and complexity has its own beliefs
and practiccs regarding health and diseases.
1.8.7 T raditional Medicine Men: The role of different traditional practitioners ofthe rural and tribal communities are to provide healthcare to their community for
years have stood the test of time and has survived even i n the midst of the most
sophisticated and advanced medical therapies.
1.8.8 Native Doctor: The Native doctor in traditional societies is a man of criticalmind endowed with many abilities and he is dedicated to his vocation. He is well
informed about the problem of his environment and possesses practical knowledge
of botany (herbistry), pathology, psychology (divination), surgery, animal and
plants curative agents, climatology, cosmology, sociology and psychiatry. He is a
man renowned for his critical abilities. He works within the means and provisions
of his culture. Lack of effective media of communication such as those of writing and the keeping of professional records limited the transmission of professional
ideas to the future generatlon (Vansia, 1968). The native doctor prescribed dances
in accordance with the traditional culture.
1.8.9 Santal H ealth a nd Medicine: The santals are one of the largest tribal g ~oups
in India, mainly concentrated in Bihar (now in Jharkhand), Orissa and West Bengal.
According to the Santals, a disease free life is possible if there is congenial
relationship between human beings, natural and supernatural beings. Any sinful act
and infringement of social customs are believed to be the based for creating tllness.
In addition to it, the innumerable evil spirits also cause illness. The Bongos
(supernatural being) and witches cause illness and disharmony. The Santal priests
are then entrusted to look after the propitiation of the spirits. Medicine men and the
magicians are involved in the act of the effects of sorcery, evil eye and witchcraft.
The institution of local healers and ojlzas are formed by such practices.Apart from the professional medical practitioners, every grown up Sanhl known
little bit of the application of herbal medicine and helshe first tries to take the
situation hy using this knowledge. Helshe seeks help of the proiessionals when
helshe fails i n his attempts and proceeds step by step from very simple remedies to
most complicated practice of divination and witchcraft. Thc common people
however, lack the knowledge about the invocations, incantations spell and magical
iormula, which are the prerogative of the ojhu.
The common procedure for the preparation of medicine is to grind the ingredients i n
a flat stone and mix with other ingredients later. The new usual earthenware pot is
utilised at the time of preparing and administering the medicine because the earthen
pot is considered cleaner then the other vessel. Often the unmarried girls are
employed for helping in the preparation of medicine. This is because the unmarried girls remain free from any influence of spirit than their married counterpart who is
supposed to be under i ht. influence of their husbands Bongu.Manuscripts on Santal medicine have reported about 261 prescriptions. The
reported diseases include the disease affecting head, nose, eyes, teeth, tongue,
mouth and throat, bones, nail and other organs of the body. Various types of fever,
cough and cold, stomach ailment, epidemic etc, are enlisted in these manuscripts.
Sunday is considered to be the auspicious day for preparation and application of the
remedies. Medicine are given in an empty stomach in the morning and repeated i n
the evening. Splints, the cut piece of so/ (sacechamm sara, L .) are used in the
bandage to mend the bone fracture. Medicinal steam-bath is also used as a remedial
measure for certain maladies.Santal medicine comprises of ingredients obtain from animal products, cereals and
pulse trees and plants. minerals and soil etc. The ingredients of tree and plants
products occupy the major place in Santal medicine. Their living in the forest might
be the cause of their considerable dependence on ecology and forest products for
remedies of various d~seases.
The Santal medicine works as contraceptive, hiwe definite effect on sterility,
increases flow of mothers milk and help to step its flow when not required. There
are medicines, which ensure easy delivery and discharge of placenta normally. It
has also the scope of simple surgical method to ensure relief of the patients. The
place where pain is felt, is marked with are hot needle or point of sickle to sub due
the pain.The available text on Santal medicine confirm the existence of many variation
rather than similarities in the prescription for the same disease. Certain disease has a
number of prescriptions. The old text mention more details of disease and medicine that the recently written ones. The former deals with the variety of fever like cold
and [ever, fever on every alternative day, fever with shivering, fever during
nighttime and fever causing bleeding. But the recent text mentions them in an
abridged form.
From the viewpoint of healing practices, i t is revealed that the recent text have
ignored to mention several earlier practices related to the remedies of diseases. The
oldest text for instance. have prescribed that, dog bite can be cured by giving the
patient hair from the tail of healthy dog inserted i n a piece of ripe banana, to
swallow. I n case of scorpion sting it is advised that the a fected person should go to
an ant-hill and shout heko, heko several times. By doing so he would get relief,
These things are no longer in the recently wrinen text by the Santal Medicine men.An understanding of Santal medicine is incomplete unless it is associated with the
whole gamut o f nature, cosmology and superstitious beliefs, their perception of
nature and occultisms in order to fight diseases.1.9 A Review of Related Studies:There are different foreign and Indian scholars completed their studies on the
related topics. These studies are very much useful for the better understanding of
the present study.
Before 1950 there were very few studies in medical anthropology and i t was also
applicable in the context of studies among the health and diseases of the tribals. ButP. 0. Bodding made some remarkable studies in this context. He (1940) had
critically examined different traditional medicine and medical practices among the
Santals. He also observed different types of cukural norms and values behind those practices. I n another study Clements (1932) has tried to trace the world-wide
distribution of five basic concepts of disease occurrence viz, sorcery, breach of
taboo, object intrusion, spirit intrusion and sole loss. Ackernet (1942) collected
useful information on the practice of medicine in from various cultural practices
including baths, centerisation, surgery, inoculation and also on their pharmacopoeia.
After 1950 there were some remarkable studies in the area of health, culture and
tribal medicine. V. Elwin, M. Mamot and Oscar Lewis made some conspicuous
studies on indigenous belief and practices regarding health, disease and treatment.
Acceptance and impact of modem medical system was also another important
criterion i n this context. Elwin (1955) has tried to describe and analyse the
relationship that exist between culture and tribal medicine. His study claims that
there is an extremely close relationship between medicine and other subsystem like
morality, religion and magic. Elwin observed that, there are Gods, associated with
childrens disease, disease of the pregnant women and disease of animals. Most of
the disease can be cured by supplicating and propitiating these Gods, directly or
indirectly through Shamanism. Mamott (1955) had critically examined the cultural
problems involved in introducing more effective technicians to the conservatives
Indian village of Krisangari. He took representative from different social strata and
found out conflicts that were obstacles to the spreads of western medicine. He
suggested that successful establishment of effective medicine could largely depend
on extend to which scientific medical practice could divert itself of western cultural
impact and adopt itself to the social life of an Indian village. Lewis (1958) had
noted that advantage in learning about the indigenous belief and practices of the
community is the insight they give into the total world view, which is also reflected
in other sphere such as agriculture, politics and interpersonal relations.
Different scholars made studies during 60s and 70s touching the different
important aspect of medical anthropology viz. folk medicine, ethnomedicine and modern medicine i n the rural and tribal areas. Khare (1963) i n his article Folk
Medicine i n a North Indian Village focuses only on medical belief held by the
residents of Indian village and stresses the fact that these beliefs quite often l ink
w ith the contrasting medical system. This research explicitly shows the i nfluence ofthese beliefs on the ~mplenientation f modem medical programmes.
oOpler (1963) says that. different diseases found among the tribes and peasant
people are due to the malfunctioning imbalance of forces, which control health, lack
of moderation or Inappropriate behaviour i n physical, social and economic matters.
He has tried to give a cultural definition of illness in an Indian village, emphasising
the role of cultural factors i n acceptance of medicine and understanding of the
nature of diseases.Hasan (1967) in h ~ study Cultural frontiers of health i n a village in India noted
two types of social and cultural factors that affect the health of any community: (a)
Certain customs, practices, beliefs and taboos create an environment that helps i n
the spread of or control of the disease and (b) factors which directly affect the
health of communiry as they are related to the problem of medical care to the sick
and the invalid.Laslie (1967) contrasts professional and popular health culture on a different basis.
He uses professional health culture to refer to the realms of practitioners i n both
systems, but does not include the medical sphere of folk speclalist. A distinction is
made between professional health culture and popular health cultures. The first term
refers to the institutions role, values and knowledge of highly rained practitioners of
the indigenous medical system and popular health culture includes the health
values, knowledge, role and practices of laymen, and specialists i n folk medicine.
Therapeutic practices i n ethnomedicine address themselves to both supernatural and
empirical theories of disease causation. Kakhar (1977) in his book, Folk and Modern Medicine has done several in depth
studies of the socio-cultural aspects of health and illness. He ernphasises on the folk
c oncept o f etiology i n a medium-sized v illageConcerning this, he comes across thepractice of three different types of medical systems in three different levels. They
are primitive medicine, folk medicine and modern medicine. Next, his interest is on
food beliefs and practice and the socio-cultural aspects of malnutrition in different
villages of Laudhiana district of Punjab. He categorlses different systems of
medical practices as those who are not institutionally qualified and noninstitutionally qualified indigenous medical practitioners, which include the
ayurvedic, unani, and siddha systems.
During 80s Chaudhuri made some significant studies in the context of tribal health
and medicine. In his book Trihol H eol~h: ocio-(ul~urulDimensions on H eol~h,
S
a
detail picture about the tribal health is depicted in the Indian context. In addition to
that Chaudhuri (1986) noted the link between the cause of illness as the nature of
treatment in his study among the Mundas. He also observed that the Magicoreligious performances occupy a prominent place in the treatment of diseases. For
example, if the reason of illness is believed to be evil-eye, sorcery or witchcraft, the
tribal always would call their own magicians instead of consulting a western doctor,
as they strongly feel that the doctors are quite helpless against such evil forces
which can only be counteracted by the magical performances of the magicians.
Chaudhuri (1989) in another study revealed the fact that health and treatment also
reflect the social solidarity of a community. He noticed among the tribal
communities that the illness and the consequent treatment is not always an
individual or familial affair but the decision about the nature of treatment may be
taken at the community level. In case of some specific d iseaks, not only the i ll
person or h isher family, but also the total village community is affected. All the
other families are expected to observe certain taboos or norm and food habits. The non-observances of such practices often call for a ct~on y the village council. One
b
c annotd m y thc ;mpnct o f this psychological support in the context oftreatment andcure, which is very common in tribal c ommunit~es.
Along with Chaudhuri different important studied were also made by different
scholars for instance Joshi (1980) i n his article, Concept and Causation:
Ethnomedicine in Jaunsar-Baur, the Silogan medical system greatly emphasis the
normal state of existence between the humans and the outside natural/supernatural
forces. In relation of the human with the natural world, the hurnoural ideology
( ~nteractiono f hot and cold forces) appears to be underlying base. This humoural
ideology not merely remains at the level of belief system, but also passes through
the natural experimentations.Nichter (1981) focused on the innovative medical education, the training of
indigenous practitioners, the setting up of the referral networks, the use of
allopathic medicine by registered medical practitioners, and basic research priorities
i llthe social sciences. He also emphasises that the Improve rural health czredelivery will depend on a n u t d understanding between physicians and patients
and co-operation between Indias pluralistic medical personal. Goal, Sahoo and
Mudgal (1984) have served the purpose of creating a wider awerness about the
indigenous uses of plants, their collection, identification, utilisation and
conservation.Chaudhury and Ghosh (1984) stated that diseases are thought to be resulting from
s i g s , crimes and disobedience of natural and religious laws. Prescribed therapy to
cure the disease is the action of appeasing the Gods with prayers, vows,
invocations, holy baths and sacrifices. The people believed in luck, talisman, divine
strings, divine rings, beads, horoscopes, rites and rituals. Kuruppaiyan (1986) in a
research paper on Traditional medicine in folk societies asserted the role of shaman as a priest, magician and medicine men to heal the tribal people in Vynad
Kcrala. Shaman s p ~ and beats t he
sp aluxlswho suffer from hysleria. H e removessome hair and nail from the patients head and hand, and then fixes it on a nearby
tree where intrusion of suspected spirits occurs. He ties amulates, talismans on the
arms and necks of the patients to protect them from evil spirits that is spirit
possession.Relation between tribal health and forest can be properly understood through the
work of Dr. B.K. Roy Burman. He (1990) in a paper Development Hazard to
Health i n Tribal India (B. Chaudhuri, ed) indicates how the development of health
of the tribal is disbalanced due to commercialisatiorl o f forest. He emphasised upon
the four major points to explore the above statement.
1 ) Rapid disappearance of forest
2) Commercialisation of minor forest produce including herbal medicine.
3) Replacement of food crop by cash crop and tendency towards monoculture
forestry.
4 ) Privatisation of communal lands.
Some recent studies can enlighten the whole situation regarding the concept of
health, disease and treatment, which will be more useful for the present study.
Parthasarathy (1990) in an article on spirit possession among fishing communities
focuses on the divination processes and healing practices among the fisher folks for
various disorders of body, mind and soul. Kar (1993) in a paper entitled
Reproductive Health Behaviuor of the Nocte Women in Amnachal Pradesh
attempted to enlight a qualitative appraisal of some relevant aspects of reproductive
health behaviour of Nocte women through a look at their social structure, culture,
food habit, morbidity and traditional health seeking behaviour. Bruce Goldberg
(1997) in his book titled Soul Healing describes the chapter Shamanic Healing
and it reveals shamanism is a religious phenomenon restricted to Siberia and
Central Asia. Shaman is a psychopomp (that guides souls). Every medicine men is a healer. The shaman is protected by a spirit of the handduring the ecstatic journeyslorr ofcoul. intrusion of soul. spirit possession, breach of taboo, bad blood, and the
war time between demons and disease. Chaudhuri (2003) showed that medical
practitioner and public health workers have been reposing that very often people do
not utilise the medical facilities available to them. Unless and until the reasons for
failure or non-acceptance of these programmes are known, the very development
programme cannot be successful.
1.9.1 Comparative Literature: Egypt, Greek, China and India are having evidence
of great interest in preserving traditional medicine as they have stood the test of
time. Modem drugs leave undesirable side effects. They are also very expensive.
Where as traditional medicines are cost- effective and patient friendly. Health and
disease are measures of the effectiveness with which a human group has adapted to
the environment (Lieban 1973). It is a suitable field for ethnographic research in
medical anthropology. (Rivers, 1924; Richard.1934; Jain, 1968; Minal, 1979;
Mathur, 1982; Duna Chaudhury and Ghosh, 1984).1.10 Scope of the Study:
The traditional rural and tribal societies in India differ from region to region due
their ecological socio-economic and cultural factors. The social and biological
functioning of the human are much shaped by culture.
The concept of health, disease and method of treatment for curing are traditionally
handed down from generation to generation in rural and specifically in the context
of tribal communities and it is called traditional medicine. It also gives an idea that
the process of traditional way of treatment is different from each community to
other community. Th, h,,ltl,s;tunt;on o f thepopulat;on o f a country like lndia can be improved withthe amelioration of the health status of the downtrodden section of population. In
lndia th-3e can be achieved through the improvement of health scenario of tribal
people residing different parts of the country.
The present study is made to explain the concept of health, disease, medical system,
medical belief, related religious practices, diagnostic and treatment in selected tribal
villages of Jhargram sub-division, district Midnapore, West Bengal, lndia and also
to study different preventive, curative, rehabilitative, diagnostic, promotive, and
protective healthcare services found among the above said villages.1.11A i m o the Study:
f
1) To further development of Ayrveda, Homoeopathy and Allopathy in an
integrated manner Indian system of medicine and Homoeopathy (ISM&H) should
be fruitful for application when it is merged with Allopathy. Because one can not beself-sufficient with out the help of other.
2 ) To examine the condition of Primary Health Centres (PHC), Sub-centres, BlockHospitals, Gramin Hospitals and Sub-divisional Hospitals.
3) T o find and access solution to reduce the cost of medicines and other medicaldiagnosis.
4 ) T o emphasise for eradicating the diseases with totally free of cost viz. malariaand tuberculosis. 5 ) hlorc seriousnzss should be taken for giving pulse polio to children under tive
v cill:.6 ) No1 lo mrl-oduce any type, of medicine or medical practices, which directlyd ~sturbshe ~ d e o l o ~ f a specific community or religious group. To find out a new
t
oy
way, which will help to eradicate the problem without affecting the soft comer of
the community.I . 12 Objectives:
The present study deals with the health condition and treatment of different diseases
among the tribal people of the selected villages under Jhargram Sub-division
District Midnapore. Along with the traditional medical practices the present study
observed the impact of modem health care programmes.I ) T o collcct the data and analysis on different tribal communities of the selectedvillages i n Jhargram S ubdivision of Midnapore district, West Bengal, India. The
data will be on different types of conception about disease, healing practice and
traditional medicine among the said communities.
2) To examine the different magico-religious healing practices prevalent among
them and to access the role of magico-religious healer i n the villages.
3 ) T o evaluate the role and working of the traditional and modem medicalpractitioners. 4 ) To know the relation between herbal medicine and forest
5 ) To asses the role of medical personal, quack, officers and staff in the PrimaryHealth Centres (PHC), Sub Centers, Rural Hospitals, Sub-divisional Hospitals, i n
healthcare programmes and daily treatments.6 ) To study the ditrerent types of preventive and promotive health care services
followed by the various governmental agencies such as [CDS (Integrated Child
Developmental Services).7) To study the actual condition of drinking water and sanitation o fthe areas8) Special attention is given to the condition of family planning and its traditionaland modem ways.9) To evaluate the modem health care programmes prov~ded y PHCs, sub centres,
b
rural hospitals and sub-divisional hospital.10) To study the intra and inter community variation if they arise.
I 1 ) To evaluate the health facilities and communication factors of the subdivisionalhospital. I . 13 Hypothesis:
The following hypothesis can be framed on the basis of the objectives of the study:-# For pursuing the traditional medical system and accepting modem medical systemthere are some variations in intra and inter community level considering the
educational and economic condition of concerned people. The variation between
male and female is also another important criterion.
# In the tribal areas the fruitful treatment of various disease by the modem medicalpractitioners are possible when they know the economic, educational and cultural
back-ground of the community.# A patient from a tribal community is psychologically assured by the treatment ofa traditional medicine man and the magico-religious healer as they belong to the
same cultural background.
# The inadequate medical f ac~liiyo r a primary health centres, sub-centres, areresponsible for lack of faith towards the modern medical system. The accessibility
and acceptability of modem medicine depend on the better communication
facilities.# Commercial afforestation is the conspicuous factor for the destruction of medicalplants and reduction of its accessibility to those tribals who are using herbal
medicine. The constraints of the forest policy are also responsible for decreasing the
collection of medicinal plants and other related materials. # The social equilibrium of a particular society is destabilised due to introduction ofthose modem medicine or medical systems which directly strike the ideology of the
people of concerned society.
# The concordance of traditional medicine and healing practices with modemmedical system is necessary for giving new, acceptable, affordable, alternative
medical system in the tribal communities.1.14Selection of the Field:
As the present study was done exclusively among the tribals, so the Jhargram Subdivision of Midnapore district was chosen for its tribal dominating character. A rich
forest resource of that region was helpful for ethno-botanical study.
Three types of villages were selected considering the scope and objectives of the
proposed study. For covering the required population two villages were taken under
each type. For pursuing specific objectives the villages were selected on the basis of
type. The type was done on different criteria viz. distance from the subdivisional town (Jhargram), as well as sub-divisional hospital, communication,
modem health facilities surrounding the villages.Type One: It was longest distance from the said urban centre and health facilities
were negligible in comparison with the other two types. There was no primary
health centres! sub-centres in a short distance. Very i ll- equipped communication to
any of the urbanhemi urban places. The absence of quack and private doctors in a
shortest distance was another additional criterion. Two tribal villages viz. Agaya
and Barashyamnagar of Belatikri Gram Panchayat were chosen under this type. The
Santal and the Kora were the inhabitant of those villages. T ype Two: The distance from the urban centre1 hospital was longer than type
three but shorter than type one. Further, there was a rural hospital, some private
practitioner, and quack i n a short distance. Village Shalukdoba and Valuka under
Binpore-1 Panchayat were situated near by the Binpore Rural Hospital and
considered suitable for the present study. Those villages were also well
communicated to the sub-divisional hospital ( Jharprn). These two villages were
exclusively Santal villages.
Type Three: Those were nearest to the urban centre (Jhargram) with the modem
facilities viz. hospital, nursing home, private practitioner, diabmostic centres etc. But
the communication was not so good like type two. Two Santal villages vlz. Laredi
and Kutuageriaof Radhanagar Gram Panchayat were chosen under type three.
Table: 1A
C ategories of the VillagesI1I
IONE(
TwoShalukdobaIValukaI~divisional town), No modem
Santal
health facilities in close
–proximity.
Shorter than t ypmne, longer
than type- three (distance),
Sanlal
Binpore rural hospital at stone
-throwing distance. Private
practitioner in close vicinity.
SantaI
Well communicated with
Jhargram.
Shorter distance. modem
medical facilities in closes
proximity, but not properly
well communicated with
Jhargram.I 1.15. Methodology Used in the Present Study:The study was conducted in the six tribal villages of Jhargram Sub-division, District
Midnapore. As stated above the six villages were taken under three types according
to the pre-settled criteria. The Santals are the main population in this study with
some Kora people in the village Agaya.A pilot survey of the villages was done during April 2001. Although Santali in case
of Santal, Harapa in the context of Kora is the mother tongue but they can
communicate through Bangali. It can be said that written language of these tribes
are Bengali. The authors knowledge of Bengali enables him to have free
interaction with the studied populations. The field-work was conducted in to
various phases, it was started from the above mention time and date and extended
up to December 2001.
There were five divisions of the total field-work. Two to three times o f field-work
were done under each division as per the requirement,Division 1:- At the first time the general observation of the villages was done along
with completion of Preliminary Schedule Form ( PSF). The details of that form are
given in the f orthcoming sections of this writing.
Division 2:- Case studies of the disease affected persons were taken on the basis of
sample. For time constraints and limitations of the study only last five years
diseases(re1ated misfortunes) affected persons were considered for evaluation.
Division 3:- Detailed open structured interview was taken from the medical
personal including the traditional medical men (Kabira; a nd Ojha,) and modem medical men ( quack, private doctor, health officer, nurses and health worker of
PHCs, s ub centres, rural hospital, subdivisional hospital).
Division 4:- Evaluation of government health schemes and projects viz. ICDS etc.
and interview of the worker helper were also taken in this regard.Division 5:- The actual situation and infrastructure of the sub-centers, PHCs, rural
hospital, and sub-divisional hospital were observed under this study and relevant
data gathered at the time of each visit in the said institutions. Condition and
situations of the nearby diagnostic centres and medical shops were also observed by
the researcher during that phase of field- work.Preliminary Schedule Form (Division 1): There are seven subsections in this
form. At the first phase of field-work the data collected through that form and each
house hold of the villages covered while taking data through preliminary schedule
folrn(PSF).
The contentlquarries of the form are as follows:-1. G eneral Information (Family level): a) Serial number b) Informant name c)
Age d) Name of the tribe e) Clan name f) Name of the clan deity g) House hold
number h) Village name i) Name of the Panchayat j) Date.
2. Demographic Information (Individual level): a) Name b) Sex c) Age d)Relation with head e) Civil condition f) Age at Marriage g) Occupation h)
Education.3. Information regarding Present work (Individual level): a) Birth place
(RurallUrban) b) Place of Birth (Home IPHCI HospitaVClinic Nursing Home etc.) C)Who attended ( Doctor/Nurse/ Pharmacist/ Mid-wife etc) d) Disease in last fiveyears e ) C ause of it r) Way of treatment g) Institution1 Person consulted h) Distance
of i t i) Procedure of treatment ( M odem ftraditionall Both) j ) How long i t exist k )
Is i t cure now I) Expanse for the purpose m) Vaccination n) Pulse polio (Under five
years) o) Attended ICDS ( for pregnant mother and children) p) Agree in family
planning ( for the married adults only).4. House-hold Information: a) Number of rooms-i) Bed room ii) Kitchen iii)
Varanda b) Use of it c) condition of it- i ) Kaccha ii) Paccka d) Place of keeping
family deity e) Style of Iconography f ) Purpose of it.5. l nformation r egarding Domestic Animals: a) List of domestic animals b) their
shelter c) Disease of domestic animals which directly affects the family members.6. H ealth particulars (Family level): a) source of drinking water i) summer ii)
rainy season iii) winter b) sanitation i) s ummer ii) rainy season iii) winter c) source
o f other water (bathing, washing) i) summer ii) rainy season iii) winter d) Use o f
herbal/ traditional medicine in daily life e) source of it i) collected ii) purchased f )
Daily food habit i) morning ii) afternoon iii) evening g) Food pollution h)
Consumption of Iiquor and smoking (individual level).7. E conomic Information (family level): a) Land holding i) home ii) agricultural
land b) Income c) Expenditure d) Any Economic Help (Given by Government/
Panchayat).
Case Study (Division 2): According to the analysis of PSF the sample of the
datailed c ase study of the patient in the six studied villages were chosen. Some
important categories were taken for sampling the diseaseaffected people (in last
five years). The categories are as follows: 1 ) Tribe 2 ) Sex 3) Procedure of treatment (Traditional/Modem/Both) Family income (HigherILower). From the above
category the following table can be drawn.
Table IB
S ample TableS&lncorne
C a t egor
Lower
Higher
Lower
Higher/T raditional1M odernB oth-111
1
111
1
I
11
IFollowing the table and taking one from each category there will be 12 samples for
each tribe in a village. If a village comprises only one category of tribe than the
tribe and village sample will be the same. But in the context of village Agaya there
are two categories of tribes viz. Santal and Kora. Further, in the case of other five
villages there is only one category of tribe viz. Santal. After considering the above
sampling method some purposive selection procedure is also administered at the
time of sampling considering the frequency of different diseases. Case studies were
taken according to the availability of the patients. The case studies were taken
through the structured (open and close) interview schedule.
Division 3: For collection of the traditional healing practice methods the author had
to face some problem at the beginning of work. At the initial stage many healers
had denied to explain that he i s a traditional healer. They might had misunderstood
the author on the ground that the author may be a medical practitioner from some
other locality thats why he wanted to know about the secrets of their services,
techniques, practices and medical preparation. But, on clarification of nature and objective of the study, the author became successful i n winning their confidence as
well as heart too and thus the informants (the traditional medical men) became more
friendly and rapport was established. Although there was an open structured
interview schedule but the author had met them several rimes in rhcir own healing
places to gather data on diseases, types of treatment and healing technique along
with the formal interview as prescribed i n the interview schedule. The author also
visited the adjacent forest for observing the medical plants and the process of its
collection.
A different open structured interview schedule was used for taking data from themodem medical practitioner. As they were aware about the work so the interview
was so formal and friendly. It is remarkable that some suggestion of them regarding
this work was an added achievement in this context. Along with the above formal
method and technique the author observation regarding various aspect was
mentionable in this study.
T i e cause of disease within tribe and village creating the disease by religious belief
on function and ceremonies in life time, commonly observed religious practices like
rites, rituals and festivals to heal the disease, the prevalence of magical beliefs
within the community for cause of death like witchcraft, evil spirit and ghost. The
prevalence of magical practices that are commonly observed for healing the disease
within the tribe and the village, the combination of modem medicine with magicoreligious healing practices has also been covered.
The role of Panchayat offices including Pradhan, members and staff were
conspicuous in the present study. Author interacted with each above said
individuals regarding the various issues covering the present work. Many valuabledata gathered through this procedure. The active participation and help of the above
said people enlighten the authors knowledge regarding various aspects, which include government health schemes, its implementation and constraints about those
schemes. Interview with the concerned Block Development Officers were and
added criterion i n this phase of field study The six studied villages were under
three grum panchayat viz. Belatikri, Binpore and Radhanagar.
The villagers gathered at night to gossip and exchanging news and views. It was
only conducive time for researcher to collect data directly from them. Focus group
interview was also taken at that time. There were different types of opinion among
the villagers and i t was taken from one in front of other thats why in the same time
crosschecking of different data could be possible. The researcher visited almost all
the shrines, than (religious place) in the studied villages.
The researchers participant observation of magico-religious healing practices, rites
and rituals, which were held to ward off evil spell and diseases. The researcher also
taken some herbal medicine given by a traditional healer For coping with severe
stomach ache. Remedy from the sudden stomach-ache was a memorable h c t at the
time of field-work.1.16 Data Analysis:Anthropological research in human community is inevitably complex and
personalised. It is carried through intensive study i n one or few communities
(Epstain, 1967). Anthropology is distinctive. It is committed to study all the culture
known to the mankind. Anthropological research design lie i n the structure of
primary data gathering in the actual field research operations (Pelto, 1970). The
anthropological investigations aim to descriptive i ntepation with determination of
cause of phenomena (Pelto, 1970; Sarana 1975). This study includes research
design on descriptive analysis. Primary source of this study are contined to data on PSF, structured ( opedclose)
interview of disease affected persons (last five years), open structured interview of
traditional and modem medical men, health o ficial o f sub-divisional hospital, rural
hospital, PHCS, sub centres, ICDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Polio
eradication projects, general health worker, worker and helper of Anganwadi and
participant observation recorded in field diaries.
Secondary sources were taken from Census of India (1 991,2001 ), District Statistical
Hand Book (1998), Directory of Medical Institute, West Bengal 2000, ancient
scriptures, various valuable books, papers on medical anthropology from the
Library, Department of Anthropology, Dr. Ambedkar Chair Professor Library,
Calcutta University, Library ICSSR, New Delhi and various Internet sights.
Data collected were two types (viz.) Qualitative and Quantitative. All the data were
analysed and tables were prepared manually.Maps illustrating the location of the largest areas have been included wherever
needed. The researcher visited various libraries in Kolkata for collection of relevant
information from books, journals, encyclopedias, dictionaries, scientific papers,
articles and Ph.D. theses. 1.1 7 Organisation o the Thesis:
fT he thesis is divided i n to five chapters:-Chapter-IIntroduction: In this chapter the basic concept abo

Homework for Chapter 3

Chapter III . Individual Assignment 1. Choose some materials (books; journal; magazines) through preliminary reading to take a full set of paraphrase, summary, direct quotation and personal comment notes on the topic you have chosen. Remember not to put too much information on individual cards. If you quote something, give a reason for quoting—–accuracy, memorable words, conciseness, and authority.
2. Then present some to us (in Word/PPT) next time
3.The following may be taken as a reference material for those who can not find a suitable material to do practiceDirection: Take a full set of paraphrase or summary notes on this magazine article.* Be sure to follow the direction indicated by the hypothesis when deciding what information belongs in your notes. Remember not to crowd information on your cards.Topic: preservation of worlds forestsHypothesis: “The continued loss of the worlds forests will have disastrous effects on both nature and civilization.”The End of EdenMan is fast destroying the rain forests.Most Americans think of the environment-if they think of it at all-as whatever affects their own backyard. Oil spills, toxic-waste dumps, the Disneying of the national parks all draw impassioned debate and criticism. In a broader context, however, such “parochial” concerns amount to not seeing the forest for the trees. The worst ecological disaster now facing mankind, as four timely new books attest, is the relentless eradication of the worlds rain forests-those magnificent green expanses that are, as conservationist Norman Myers writes in The Primary Source (399 pages. Norton. $17.95), “the finest celebration of nature ever known on the planet.”Until recently, no one really thought much about saving rain forests. Millions upon millions of acres of them girdled the equator, many unseen by human eye. In the last two decades, however, that seemingly infinite resource has dwindled at a terrifying speed. Every minute of every day, writes journalist Catherine Caufield in In the Rainforest (304 pages. Knopf $16.95), an exhaustively researched report from the front line, almost 30 acres vanish forever. Each year an area the size of England, Scotland and Wales is razed. By the turn of the century, if this rate of destruction continues, most major rain forests (they exist primarily in Central and South America, the Congo basin and such eastern islands as Sumatra, Borneo and Papua New Guinea) may well be reduced to degraded patches. The war is on, waged by loggers eager for valuable timber, poor farmers hungry for land to call their own, Latin American ranchers who, often for the prestige of being a weekend caballero, clear vast tracts to run cattle.It is hard for most people to envision what is being lost; few Americans will ever see a rain forest. Hence the value of books like Adrian Forsyth and Ken Miyatas Tropical Nature (248 pages. Scribners. $16.95), which seeks “to provoke curiosity” about the forests-not just provide facts about them-and succeeds splendidly. Written by two biologists-one of whom, Miyata, was tragically killed on a fishing expedition before its publication- Tropical Nature” evokes the magic and wonder of a world completely contained within itself.On first seeing a rain forest, write the authors, the overwhelming impression is of green stillness and luxuriant life. Far above the ground is the forest canopy, through which little sunlight penetrates to the forest floor. Everywhere one looks are huge lianas or vines snaking toward the light. Tree trunks drip masses of epiphytes-ferns, mosses, orchids. There are thousands upon thousands of plant, animal and insect species, almost half the planets species in only 2 percent of its area. Nothing is as it seems: in the high-stakes game of survival, many plants and insects have assumed the appearance or coloration of similar species that are inedible or even deadly. Some really are deadly, including the sinister pit vipers that use infrared sensors, located between their eyes, to track their victims through the darkness. At night, contrary to the Tarzan myth of a jungle echoing with screams and roars, the forest interior takes on a slightly foreboding stillness.Drought: Its difficult to believe that such richness cannot be converted into prime farmland. The fact is, however, that most rain-forest soil is among the worlds oldest and poorest. Whats more, the forest acts like a giant sponge. If it is cut down, the result is not only flooding in the rainy season but drought in the dry; studies have shown that the forests retain and recycle as much moisture into the air as comes from the clouds. Destroy a rain forest and you wind up, at best, with a few years of crops gleaned from the temporary nutrients that come from burning trees. Then the soil is exhausted. And, since each species is interdependent with so many others in the great chain of being, the forest cannot easily regenerate itself. Where once there was exuberant life there is barren wasteland.And still the misguided schemes to make the rain forest “productive” continue. In the forthcoming Dreams of Amazonia (192 pages. Viking. $17.95), Roger Stone, a former Time-Life bureau chief in Brazil and now vice president of the World Wildlife Fund, chronicles one mistaken effort after another to turn Amazonia into El Dorado. The most famous venture of the 1970s was American billionaire Daniel K. Ludwigs ill-fated Jan, for which enormous paper mills were floated up the Amazon. Few people now remember Henry Fords equally ambitious Fordlllndia, which preceded Jan by four decades. This was a huge rubber plantation that limped along for years until Ford finally sold the land back to the Brazilian government in 1945. The most recent schemes, to resettle small farmers and clear vast tracts for cattle, have foundered on the poverty of the soil. Now the Brazilian government has launched a vast mining project, Grande Carajas, that dwarfs all of its predecessors. It will cover a sixth of Amazonia-the biggest rain-forest area left in the world-with huge mines and dams. The first, Tucuruf Dam, which is already under construction, will alone flood 800 square miles of virgin forest. It is far too big an area to clear; the trees will simply be left to rot. As for the Indians who have settled there, theyll be uprooted yet again and forced ever nearer to extinction.Species: Whats distressing about such destruction is not simply the loss of the worlds most beautiful forests; it is the possibly disastrous side effects. At worst, the carbon released from the burning and decaying forest could have a “greenhouse effect” on the earth, melting part of the polar ice caps and causing floods worldwide. The worlds gene pool will dwindle as species become extinct; wild plants are regularly interbred with domestic crops to strengthen them against blight and pests. Most tragic of all, perhaps, is the annihilation of species as yet undiscovered, which might well have proven invaluable to mankind. Of the plants known to have anticancerous properties, for example, more than 70 percent are rain-forest species. “Few environmental disorders cause irreversible damage to our biosphere,” writes Myers in “The Primary Source.” “But the extinction of species is a different ballgame. When a species is gone, it is gone forever.”Is there any way to save the forests, or at least significant chunks of them Of the four books, “The Primary Source” is the most optimistic. Its proposals range from tree plantations planted with fast-growing species to limiting timber cutting to selected secondary, or previously logged, forest to a U.S. boycott of Central American beef. In the end, it is just as unlikely that Americans will deprive themselves of the cheap beef used by convenience-food giants as that rain-forest countries will welcome foreign intervention. In many countries, the destruction of the forest is a direct result of national poverty. In others, it is a matter of machismo or pride-“our moon shot,” as one Brazilian proudly proclaimed to Stone. What chance does the forest stand against that As an official of Eletronorte, the builders of the Tucurui Dam, told Caufield, “Any dam is economic, most of all if you consider that the land is free. The only price is the environmental one.” That price, sadly, will be paid by us all.

Concept of Beauty – Africa

————————————————-
Our Concept of Beauty
What is beauty to you For a female, would beauty be described by a Victoria??™s Secret model How about a male Would a picture of a Calvin Klein super model come to mind In America, our idea of beauty has been governed by what we see in the media and well as other social norms. As the ideal image of a super model changes, we change our concept of beauty. When Marilyn Monroe became famous, for example, it became desirable to have more curves. Then came Twiggy, the revolutionary model that introduced ???skinny??? as the ultimate look. Now, we are bombarded with images of skinny girls on swimsuits with long straight or wavy hair and big fake breasts. We see Cover Girl commercials of girls with even skin tones and we could never imagine a male model with tattoos on his face. Any trace of a marking we would see as a flaw unless it is governed by the rules of couture.
Indeed, we are so overwhelmed with these ideas that we fail to consider that there could be anything different somewhere else in the world. It is because of these ideas that we see people obsessed with obtaining the ???perfect??? weight. Many of us strive to go beyond what is considered healthy in order to attain a ???beautiful??? figure, and we don??™t even sit to think whether this concept of beauty is just in our heads. Is a skinny girl really preferable everywhere in the world Are ???excessive??? piercings and tattoos not what everyone in the world would want to see as iconic Perhaps we need to think twice.
This research paper will take you through a journey in Africa, where you will experience what beauty is like in the countries of that continent. You will get to see a different side of the ideal weight and you will envelop yourself in a place where Kate Moss is underfed and Brad Pitt is not manly enough.
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Fat and beautiful
Imagine a place where your routine consisted of sleeping, eating, and getting fat. Even more, imagine a place where this was a sign of good health and prosperity. Welcome to Calabar, Nigeria and the customs of the Efik, where being fat is a women??™s valued emblem of beauty!
It might seem strange to an American to picture a world where the fatter a woman is, the more desirable she is. However, in certain places in Africa, such as Nigeria, Mauritania, Uganda, and others, a fat woman is not judged intrinsically on her looks but on the meaning that a corpulent body holds. A fat wife represents the worth of her family and that of her husband. The wealthier they are, the more they should be able to feed her, and for this reason, a big wife is desirable. (BBC News)
Naturally, most women are not overweight from birth. Therefore, there is a fattening process that must take place as a woman prepares herself to become a wife. If the girl is not of marriageable age, fattening up still takes place as a tradition to show the girl??™s transition from maidenhood to womanhood.
The fattening process takes place at a fattening room. This could either be a fattening center or simply a room separated from the main house, where the female is fed continuously and is deterred from activity aside of toileting, learning, and eating. She is massaged three times a day, fed 6 large portions of fattening food such as porridge ekpang, yams, and soups, and encouraged to sleep many hours. (Oku) In an Annang fattening room, (the Annangs are a tribe related to the Efiks), the girl sits on a bamboo mat which they believe will soften her up. This, they believe, will help her replace her muscles with fat. Additionally, the girl is naked at all times. This is so that ???one can observe her fatness???. (de Garine)
In addition to making the girl fat, the older women that are in charge of her also teach her the secrets of becoming a great wife. She learns how to cook, how to care for children, how to respect her husband, and overall, how to make a happy family. The girl is also taught traditional dances, folklore, folktales, songs and other forms of entertainment that will help her be successful in her marriage and womanhood. (Oku)
Traditionally, the girl would begin her fattening process with a ceremony. At the end of her period in seclusion, she would be greeted with pompous celebration with her family, neighbors, and visitors. The fatter she comes when she ends her seclusion, the higher the price that the parents can ask from the groom. The process of fattening takes approximately six months. In that time span, the girl achieve up to a weight of 220 lbs. (de Garine)
The process of fattening a girl is not always carried with the consent of the girl. According to Fatematou, a ???fat farm??? owner in Mauritania, it is rare to find girls that do not want to eat. However, when they refuse, they are forced to, as this is ???for their own good.??? In the end, all of them overeat and according to Fatematou, ???They are proud and show off their good size to make men dribble.??? (Harter)
So how fat is too fat According to the Efik, there is no rule as to whether the girl is fat enough, but overall, the fatter the better. Not surprisingly, however, there are health detriments that arise from these practices. This excess of fat increases the women??™s propensity to heart disease and other illness. (Simmons) However, the health effects are left aside to avoid ruining a girl??™s reputation and that of her parents in society. Essentially, the girl is kept in the fattening room as long as the parents can afford feeding her. The length of the seclusion and the weight that the girl gains both contribute to the status of the family. Parents of a skinny girl are tagged as not having enough money to get her through the whole fattening rite. Moreover, a thin girl is believed to be sickly and unable to bear a child. (Simmons) The Annangs believe that ???fattening created broad hips which are a prerequisite to providing a large enough birth canal so that babies could slide out easier.??? (de Garine) A fat girl is believed to be ready to conceive, carry, and nurture a child.
In the old times, the Annangs had a lengthy process for becoming a Mbobo, or a fattening room girl. First, the girls had to become part of two secret societies (ndam and ngwongwo). The initiation of ngwongwo involved the controversial female circumcision. A Mbobo was the fattening processes that lead to marriage. In order to become a Mbobo, the girl had to be a virgin without any exceptions. The matrons checked for her virginity in privacy before the final celebration, and if she is found not to be a virgin, she was left to become a prostitute to support herself. Before coming out, she was force to swear that she was a virgin. If she lied, she would supposedly die within the next six months. Currently, the practice of Mbobo is sanctioned by the Catholic Church, and for this reason, fattening girls are much more protected from being discovered by outsiders. (de Garine)
Indeed, we have seen that our image of a perfect figure as that of a skinny woman is not shared by all cultures around the world. It might seem puzzling for there to be such vast differences in our views of beauty. Nonetheless, it has been found that in developing countries, there is a trend in humans for females to be better fed than males; as a country gets wealthier, this difference is reduced. ???Primary findings included the observation of a consistently inverse association for women in developed societies, with a higher likelihood of obesity among women in lower socioeconomic strata.??? (McLaren) This could explain why we see this trend in differences in aesthetic preferences for women.

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Conclusion
Our journey through the African ideologies of beauty has given us a different view on aesthetic preferences of humans. The information and data throughout this paper depicts the lives of tribal peoples, and it is important to note that these ideologies have not escaped the influence of the West and of Europe.
We began by talking about the differences in preference for weight in women. It is obvious by the facts presented, that there is a tendency in some African countries to prefer overweight women. However, some data suggest that as Africa becomes more Westernized, there has been an increase in body dissatisfaction and eating disorders among young women. (Mwaba)
As for body markings, concerns with the sanitation of the process of scarification as well as a move of African countries towards development, has reduce these practices. Nonetheless, they are still common and embraced.
Not even have accessories been untouched by the views of the West. Currently, there is a growing trend in the use of fake hair that is brought from America.