Concert Report

I attended ???Romantic Trio??? on Thursday, March 24, 2010 at Bogazici University, Albert Long Hall. The hall was much more crowded than I expected because it was workdays. The word wide known Israeli pianist Itamar Golan met with two Turkish musicians who are Atilla Aldemir and Cag Ercag. They presented the masterpieces of romantic music as double and trio. Atilla Aldemir is the valuable violin and viola player and Cag Ercag is the other valuable artist, who plays cello. Three of artists came together to present romantic compositions to audiences.
Albert Long Hall is the as big as for concert but its scene is smaller. There is a mystic atmosphere, which affect the audience. Floor covering and the saloon color fill in the mysterious. Audiences were generally young people. I think that the average age of audience is higher than me before the concert but young had shown more interest like me. Moreover there were a few foreign guests to attend the concert. Music was gathered all nations and kind of people under Albert Long Hall. The general mode of dressing was between classic and sports because of the young generation. However artists??™ dresses were typical and classical. They looked surprisingly good. They located the center of the scene. The mid and back place included piano with Mr. Golan. Mr. Aldemir located at the left of the Mr. Golan and Mr. Ercag was another side. Lights helped to influence audience. Especially some changes such as darken lights among the pieces were affect me, I joined the romance of music.
I attended the classical music concert at first time. Generally I think that this type of music does not affect me because I was listening classic music while I was studying, so I did not try to understand it before. Also I do not have any information about it. Before I went to concert, I reviewed my learning from Hum204 lecture, so I can analyze and enjoy much more. Romantic Trio includes romantic composition, which explains the emotions with sound. The expression of romance without any words is the key point because it is different way for me. The combination of loudness and softness, which refers to dynamic, was at perfect point

to keep me ready to listen all time without any monotony. At the end of the concert, I whispered the melody of some part of it. And also artists affected me because they played their instruments as living them.
The concert was related with romantic composition from the masterpieces which were from 19th century. Elegie op. 44 from Alexander Glasunov, Elegio op. 24 from Gabriel Faure, Trio No. 1 op.49 from Felix Mendesshon and Trio No. 1 op. 8 from Johannes Brahms were included at this concert program. Before going to concert, I did some search for these pieces and I understand them well and I enjoyed much more. First Itamar Golan and Atilla Aldemir came the stage. They present Elegie op. 44 from Alexander Glasunov. This piece is from Romantic Era, 1893. It sounds really good and its pitch is low. Soft and calm romantic composition was emotionalized me. It is generally decrescendo but some part especially the mid parts are crescendo. Homophonic textures, in which two or more parts move together in harmony, draw the attention. First piece was succeeding affecting me deeply.
Second composition was Elegio Op. 24 from Gabriel Faure, which is from Romantic Era, 1883. The piece, C minor, is slower and more upset than first piece. It was represented by pianist Itamar Golan and cellist Cag Ercag. This piece is in ABA format which is that A theme starts and continue with B theme, changes sharply the rhythm. Cello and piano composition are within a harmony. We hear cello melody accompanied by piano so the texture is homophonic.
The following composition was Trio No. 1 op.49 from Felix Mendelsshon, which is from again Romantic Era, 1839. At this composition 3 of valuable performer came together. Cello and piano started and violin joined them later. This composition has allegro tempo because in some parts it was fast and it has a gradual increase in loudness. It was homophonic texture in general but in some theme polyphonic and monophonic texture were available. It was more energetic than first two compositions. I think this sequence was better because more romantic and slow pieces may depress me if they were too much because of my dynamic character. According to my research there are 4 movements at this piece, which are Molto allegro e agitato, Andante con moto tranquillo, Scherzo: Leggiero e vivace, Finale: Allegro assai appassionato. These movements are related with the structure of trio. For example; in the first movement, sonata forms begins without introduction and main theme is cello and continue with joining piano and violin. In the second movement piano is the main theme and cello repeats with counterpoint to piano. The other movements explain the structural changes as first two movements.
The last composition was Trio No. 1 op. 8 from Johannes Brahms, which is from Romantic Era, 1854. This composition was played with all piano, cello and violin. It was more allegro and vivage than the others. Also it was crescendo and it shows us that piece does not need to be slow to be romantic. This composition has again 4 movements like Trio No. 1 op.49. Allegro is the first movement which is in B major, starts with cello and piano. Scherzo is the second one which is in B minor but feeling changes. Adagio is the next one which is again in B major and using chromaticism with cello. Allegro is the last movement which is in B minor, using chromaticism again with ambiguous tone. Trio No. 1 from Meldelssohn was energetic than first two but Trio No. 1 from Brahms was my best piece in this concert because it is most energetic one like my feelings.
In conclusion, I enjoyed the classic music concert and really like the actors??™ performance. While I was listening to the concert, I forgot all my problems and at the end of the opera I found myself to be relaxed and emotional. It leads to increase in my interest to classic music and it chances my bad idea about classic music. I recommend this concert to my friends.

Homophobia

Homophobia? is a term used to refer to a range of negative? attitudes? and feelings towards? lesbian,? gay? and in some cases? bisexual,? transgender people. The concept of someone heterosexual being ???straight??? makes one wonder. What does that make a homosexual exactly Crooked There itself lies the problem of homophobia. The assumption that these people are different and therefore should not be accepted.Analyzing a perspective of why homophobia exists is basically because of a fear of the unknown. ???Normal??? heterosexual people would just assume that homophobia is unnatural and weird leading them to discriminate against those people who are sexually inclined in a different way. However, some people argue saying that homophobia should be fought against because it is said that in various religions the practice is strongly looked against. Firstly, it must be understood that ones religious perspective does not give another the right to actually condemn someone who might or might not have the same beliefs as you. And when actually looking at what the religious books cite, it is obvious that many verses have been taken out of context to actually fulfil many a selfish purpose such as to persecute Jews (think Hitler). It is the biggest harm in the world to actually assume that an interpretation of a holy book gives one the right to think that they are supremely allowed to pass judgement on a fellow being. While looking at what religious books forbid, take a look at what they propogate instead which is acceptance, love and understanding, which is what we should be trying to uphold.Looking at homosexuality through tunnel vision is what actually leads to discrimination in the first place. The assumption that they are not ???normal??? or have ???weird tendencies??? is what leads to this misunderstanding about them in the first place. After asking a number of Help students their opinon??™s, this is what one of them had to say. ???The fact that the gay phenomenon has become so wide-spread has made me extremely cautious whenever I meet new people. You never know just who you are shaking hands with.” The problem with the statement above leads to the first issue faced by many heterosexual people. The assumption that homosexual people will ???make the moves??? on them and make them feel uncomfortable. There??™s only one phrase to assure you that they won??™t. It??™s GET OVER YOURSELF. Homosexual people are not that different than us and to assume that they??™re going to be attracted to you immediately JUST because you happen to be of the same gender is the same as assuming that every heterosexual member of the opposite sex is into you. That is just pure egoism talking.Taking a fair and unbiased look at homosexuality is also putting yourself in the shoes of a person who happens to be unfortunate enough to be born into a situation that is so condemned by society. Society who doesn??™t even have the social nor the principle right to assume they are allowed to become moral police. A sexuality of a person in not a conscious decision that is made the minute they were born and as human beings their rights to be respected matters as much as any supposedly normal person. Also, homesexuals, do not differ from hetrosexuals in lifestyle. Just partner choice. What people have to realize is that this being an unconscious choice is not something that should be discriminated against. As another Help student stated ???Homosexuality is not a choice, just like heterosexuality is not a choice. One does not choose to be straight, just like one does not choose to be gay. There is a large controversy of people being gay, but I for one, have no problem with accepting gay people, because at the end of the day theyre just people, trying to live a normal life and getting themselves accepted into the community. just because its not a societal norm, doesnt mean it shouldn??™t be accepted.???Nevertheless taking a different stance, the effects homophobic people have on the gay community is both daunting and terrifying. Imagine being born a certain way only to be sure that your lifestyle choice is going to lead to discrimination and queer looks. Especially, in the young adults world where everything is uncertain, where college applications, results and studies seem to be the most important events at the moment. Imagine silently suffering and being unable to reach out, to tell the world who you truly are seeing as it would only bring added stress and prejudice. It is a known fact that in school, students cruelly use a word linked to homosexuality as an insult to highlight a difference from a typical gender expectation. Boys who are considered to be more feminate then the usual masculine norm are called gay or girls who dress like boys or have strong feminine opinions are labeled as lesbians, This paints a picture of homosexuality as something that is highly undesirable and wrong. These taunts and supposedly harmless jokes lead to homosexual individuals being silenced and wanting to remain in the closet for as long as possible.However, there are an incredibly large number of students who do not belive that there is anything wrong with being part of the LGBT community. One student said ???I think gay people have the choice to like whoever they want to like. I mean old fashioned people might think theyre outcasts but i think theyre pretty cool, especially the ones that come out of the closet I think they have really got the balls, to show off who they really are.??? Another student said ???I dont feel gay people are a different kind of people.. They just have different preferences dont they And a few of my best friends are gay and its no different than being friends with straight people except that with gay guys you have someone to guy-watch with??? [pic]There is something extremely comforting about realizing that although there are people who do find something wrong with being homosexual there also others who belive that there is nothing wrong with being different and embracing that individuality.In recognition of homophobics however, I acknowledge that there the entire issue is a matter of difference in opinion. Despite that, the fact remains that an opinion only extends to being one as long as it does not infringe on the comfort zone of another person. Once that line is breached it stops being a personal view and instead becomes discrimination. I pose this question to you, racism was once acknowledged because a certain race was considered to be so much better then another. However as the years progressed it was understood that all humans are equal and race does not distinguish an individual. What is so different about sexuality in a lifestyle We have to come to understand that a person is not distinguished by his or her sexual preference but instead character and personality. Once this is fully understood, only then can homophobia be truly abolished.

Concerning the Review Procedure of the Hong Kong Magistrate

*(CAN BE USED IN ANY CASE)
* (CAN BE DELETED IF UK/BKHARY)
4 pts
Ladies and Gentlemen, today, our dear opponents have proven themselves to be highly persistent and they cling dearly onto their misguided ideas.Legal Principle (cannot judge himself) *
First of all, our dear opponents have implied that the Review Procedure (violates the legal principle of ???one cannot be his own judge???/ is not reliable because the Magistrate is judging itself).
However, let me assure you that the Review Procedure is not advocating self-judgment, but rather, it is advocating reflective evaluation that can allow flaws made in cases to be corrected, thus preserving justice. Are our opponents suggesting that justice is negligible I surely hope not.Biased opinions (goes with above) *
Our dear opponents have, by their previous point, implied that the Review Procedure would advocate decisions made according to the magistrate??™s biased opinions. This will lead to the perversion of justice, or so they claim.
If the Review Procedure is abolished; all appeals of cases would be left to defendants or the accusers. And while defendants would only file appeals if they themselves feel that the judgments they have received are illegitimate, accusers would only file appeals if the judgments the defendant received are illegitimate according to the accusers. Therefore, all types of appeals in this case are based on personal interests. Does this mean our opponents are suggesting that no appeals whatsoever should be made, by any given means
Besides, if a magistrate proceeds to file an appeal against its own case, it means that they have noticed something wrong about the case or have been presented with new perspectives or evidence, and our opponents have failed to take notice of this obvious point.Unnecessary, 61 *
Our dear opponents have also implied that the Review Procedure is unnecessary or even detrimental due to certain risks; otherwise they would not have wanted it to be abolished. But it seems to me that they have yet neglected another point: if something is seldom used, it can still retain its usefulness. Let me put forward a metaphor.
In Hong Kong, there??™s a law which forbids us to murder. Yet it was only put into force 60 times each year. But that does not mean it should be abolished. No. Likewise, the Review Procedure being used 61 times in history shows that it retains its necessity. Answer me this, my dear opponents: defendants and accusers can sometimes be bind by financial terms and fail to file appeals to uphold justice. What will you do then, if the Procedure is abolished Are you implying that these cases do not require justiceRisks **
Our dear opponents have also argued that there might be certain risks to preserving such a Procedure. Allow me to retort by telling you that all kinds of appeals involve risks. Does this mean no appeals should be made The answer is no, obviously.UK
Our opponents have also tried to tell us that just because UK has abolished this Procedure, Hong Kong should too.
But they have simplified the matter to suit their own needs. They must be reminded that the legal community of UK has reached a consensus to do such an act, and what it does has no effects on Hong Kong whatsoever, as the UK and Hong Kong are clearly two separate places.
Are our opponents saying that if a major country does something, anything at all, then Hong Kong must follow I believe no explanation is needed to prove how absurd it is.Bokhary Case
Our opponents have put forward the infamous Bokhary case. They say that because the Review Procedure has no effect on the result, it should then be abolished. Once again they have failed to take notice of the obvious: and has put result over procedural justice.
If the Procedure is abolished, then what more means do we have to pursue justice if appeals from defendants and accusers are already made or are not going to be made

Homophobia in the Workplace

Homophobia in the Workplace
Leadership plays an important role in how a business will function; it determines the style of motivation, which then sets the tone for employee behavior. There are many management styles, just as there are many types of personalities. In today??™s fast paced corporate world, a manager must think creatively to solve problems. Management includes problem solving skills and has many different functions.
Leadership sets the tone of the business. The interactions management has with employees and the external customer plays a role in how the businesses will succeed. It is vital that management understand how their actions will affect the bottom line. Using an authoritative style may bring consistency, but not creativity. It is important for business leaders to review their style and its role in the productivity of employees and by extension their business. Different management styles can have a positive effect on employees; it can also result in negative effects. With this in mind, each management style can be administered and utilize management training to effectively lead the employees in the workplace.
Management is a process to achieve organizational goals through planning, organizing, leading and controlling people, and other organizational resources (Nickels, McHugh, and McHugh, 2008). As a manager, you must not only perform these things, but also consider management training. Training is an important part of being or becoming a manager. Management training has evolved and become more complex prior to the millennium.
According to the American Society for Training and Development, the baby boomers are fast approaching retirement age, and there are several major issues relating to boomers that managers must now face in 2006. One major issue is a fear that company knowledge will leave with the boomers, which is forcing mangers to find a way to transfer that knowledge to younger workers, either through videotaping, coaching or training (Management Training, 2006). Today, managers are expected to supervise more workers and again to pass along management philosophy to their staff (Ketter, 2006).
Planning however is the fundamental function from which the others stem from. Planning is the development of a business??™ objectives and how they will be accomplished. Abbott Laboratories believe that the function of planning is a staple in the way management must function. Although the company has many different departments, they all can agree that planning is the key to being a successful manager.
Organizing is also key function of management. Organizing involves setting and maintaining structure within the organization. Management must take a look at all departments throughout the company when organizing. At Abbott Laboratories, management believes in defining duties, maintaining discipline, and offering fair and suitable rewards for its employees. Management uses organizing in decision-making, and assigning tasks. These tasks are divided, grouped, and coordinated by the management.
The management function of influencing is directed towards people??™s behavior. Influencing is another function of management. This can be done through communication, motivation, discipline, and leadership. Managers give this function a variety of names such as directing, leading, and controlling. Working under this function helps the management to control and supervise the actions of all employees at Abbott Laboratories.
Having a diverse work force in terms of geographic origin, ethnic background, gender, religion, and life experiences enriches companies with new perspectives and insights. However, the issue of workplace diversity has been one of great insecurity and debate over the past decade.
Falcon, P (1999). 101 Sample Writeups for Documenting Employee Performance Problems: A guide to Progressive Discipline and Termination. New York: Amaccom.
Goldberg, A, and Ritter B. (2006, August 2). Costco CEO finds Pro-Worker Means Profitability High wages, employee benefits build loyalty and P.R. ambassadors. Retrieved January 21, 2008, from ABCNews Web site: http://abcnews.go.com/2020/Business/storyid=1362779

Concepts & Theories of Nursing

???Theory forces a view, at the expense of knowledge, and at the expense of creativity in practice??™(Kozial-McLain & Maeve 1993).This essay is going to present arguments both for and against the above quote by analysis of theavailable literature. The theory-practice gap is a well known phenomenon in nursing and its existencehad been acknowledged for many years. The disparity between theory and practice has exercised theminds of reformers and policy makers since the time of Florence Nightingale (Baly 1986). Theory andpractice are powerful vehicles for socialization and transmission of cultural norms. Underlying thetheory-practice debate is the assumption that theory is and can be separated from practice, theory andpractice do not, however exist in splendid isolation (Rafferty et al 1996).The two are inseparable, theirdevelopment has historically been regarded as the domain primarily of nurse educators rather than theconcern of practitioners (Lathlean 1994).As the profession of nursing becomes increasingly complex,nurses assume greater responsibilities in the areas of clinical practice, theory development, and theadvance of nursing science through research (Krouse & Holloran, 1992). A changing face of thebroader society drives change in nursing (Loveridge, 1991). Nagle and Mitchell (1994) believe that theart of nursing is the way theoretical knowledge is lived in relationships with others. Whereas Koziol-McLain and Maeve (1993) suggest that nursing theories are not already linked to philosophicalunderpinnings and that theories are myopic and inadequate representations of reality. Koziol-McLainand Maeve (1993) suggest that practicing nurses should be wary of nursing theory. While recognizinga role for theory in nursing, they stated that nursing theory is useful only when ???used to describe andwhen it entices us to want to know more??™ but that theory in nursing is not useful when such theory isprescriptive in nature. According to Nagle and Mitchell (1994) this position denies the fact that allknowledge is already theoretical. If nurses think and rely on knowledge when they are with persons inpractice, whether in the ???highlands or in the swamps,??™ then they must be relying on theoreticalknowledge since there is no other kind. According to Miller (1985) during the development of nursingin the United Kingdom, nursing theory and nursing practice tended to be separate, with one group ofnurses involved in caring for patients and another group of nurses involved in teaching nursing. Theterm nursing theory was once used to differentiate classroom teaching from ward practice.Nursing theory is an organized and systematic articulation of a set of statements related to questions inthe discipline of nursing. A nursing theory is a set of concepts, definitions, relationships, andassumptions or propositions derived from nursing models or from other disciplines and project apurposive, systematic view of phenomena by designing specific inter-relationships among concepts forthe purposes of describing, explaining, predicting, and or prescribing (Nursing Theories 2010). Botha(1989) suggests that theories provide ways of thinking about and looking at the world around us.Draper (1990) asserts that the generation of theory has several functions, to define nursing broadly, toaid curriculum design, to enhance professional nursing practice and to form the basis for a languagethrough which nurses can communicate. ? From the time of Florence Nightingale, the concept of personhas played a major role in nursing theory and its development. While nursing theory has evolved sincethe nineteenth century, Nightingales concept of person has remained as a central feature of much ofthis theory. The concept of person, however, has not remained central in all nursing theory, nor doesthe concept play a prominent role in all nursing research. By contrast, however, the concept of personcontinues as the central emphasis in nursing practice (Flynn and Heffron 1988).Dickoff and James (1968) cited by Tolley (1995) propose that there are four levels of theory classifiedaccording to their scope and depth. Firstly meta theory, which focuses on broad issues particularlyrelated to theory in nursing. Recent examples include Botha (1989) and Shaw (1993).Secondly grand theories, which give some broad perspective to the goals and structure of nursingpractice. Grand theories include conceptual models such as Orem (1971).Thirdly, another approach for translating knowledge into practice is through the use of middle rangetheories, examples include Reed (1991) middle range theory of self-transcendence and Barretts (1988)theory of power (Smith & Liehr 2008). Middle range theories focus on specific phenomena orconcepts central to nursing practice in a variety of care settings and they provide a practical way fornurses to link philosophical perspectives of the discipline with real word applications of theory topractice. Finally there are practice theories, theses are theories which come from clinical practice, theirpurpose is to explain a specific nursing practice (Melius 1991). Dickoff and James (1968) cited byTolley (1995) define practice theory as a situation producing theory and that it is there to guide actionto the production of reality. Logical positivism and behaviourism influenced the development ofnursing theory (Flynn and Heffron 1988). The nursing theory of Hildegard Peplau incorporated aspectsof both behaviourism and logical positivism. Peplaus theory was the theory of psychodynamic nursingwhich is an interpersonal theory of nursing that is highly compatible with both the practice of nursingand nursing research (Bower el al 1994).The holistic approach to nursing that is incorporated in many contemporary nursing theories issignificant for the relationship between the practice of nursing and theory development in nursing inrelation to clinical practice (Lauder 1994). Clinical decision-making refers to the cognitive processesinvolved in the formulation of a patient diagnosis by a decision-maker, and to the selection by thedecision-maker of appropriate interventions to correct the patients problems. The primary sources oferror in clinical decision-making are misperception of outcomes, and misperception of the valuespatients place on outcomes. The incorporation of holism into the theory of nursing could lead toimprovements in clinical decision-making in that the nurse acting within the parameters of this theoryof nursing would be more knowledgeable of and sympathetic to the values patients place on outcomes.Goal attainment, a holistic perspective, patient autonomy, interaction between nurse and patient, andadaptation are common both, to much contemporary nursing theory and to the practice of nursing(Bevis and Watson 1989).According to Allmark (1995) the perceived problem of the theory-practice gap is built upon theassumption that theory can and must be directly applied to nursing practice, otherwise it is irrelevant.Whilst the spirit in which this claim is made is healthy, the assumption is false; the type of knowledgeassociated with practice could not be taught through theory nor well represented in theoretical terms.McCaugherty (1991) explains the theory practice gap using the symbol-object dichotomy as ananalogy. He states that a symbol such as a picture or an image is not the same as the actual object,thus, what is taught in the classroom is not the same as that which is experienced in the clinicalenvironment. Russell (1967) cited by (McCaugherty 1991) identifies the former as ???knowledge bydescription??™ and the latter, ???knowledge by acquaintance??™.McCaugherty (1991) argues that theory can only ever offer generalisations and can never capture therichness of that which individuals encounter in practice, but theory gives students an idea of what canbe expected. Benner (1984) argues that the art of nursing cannot be found in text books and that thisintuitive knowledge is characteristic of expert nursing practice gained through experience informed bytheoretical knowledge but not enslaved by it. According to Cook (1991) the theory-practice gap innursing exists partly due to the influence of ???the hidden curriculum??™, that is, the learning that takes thatis unplanned and unintended in any given learning setting. He argues that attempts to close the theory /practice gap are doomed to failure since they are based on an inadequate understanding of why the gapexists in the first place. Sandelands (1991) gives pointers to the distinctive nature of practice andtheory, understanding and explanation, he states that practice often develops without theory; he givesthe example of children learning language, he also states that knowing theory is rarely a guarantor forgood practice, e.g. playing the piano or nursing. So not only are theory and practice logically distinctbut they are characterized by different types of knowledge.Miller (1985) states that although it is clear that nursing practice must alter in order to accommodateboth changes in society and changes in our ideas about nursing, one cannot also expect practitioners toadopt idealized theories of nursing which are impossible to apply to practice. Nor can one educatestudents to enter a practical world by teaching theories of nursing which bear little relationship to thereality of nursing practice, and which are perceived as irrelevant by many nursing practitioners.The relationship between thinking and doing is probably one of the most important debates within thenursing profession. It was thought that the problem of how to link both was solved in the idea if thereflective practitioner. Aristotle??™s notions of practical wisdom and the practical syllogism provide atheoretical and conceptual framework that facilitates the explication of that vital bridge between theoryand practice (Lauder 1994). The concept of the reflective practitioner has been an important andcentral feature in nursing education for some years now, with nurses constantly being reminded thatreflecting on the acts they perform is the essence of professional practice (Cervero 1988). According toConway (1994) artistry and reflection appear to be ideal vehicles for bridging the theory-practice gapin nursing. If practitioners are coached to develop reflective practice abilities, which enable them toreframe problems in the practice setting and to devise and test hypotheses related to practice within thepractice setting, then both the theory and practice of nursing are fused into one. Reflection is ideal foruniting the art and science of nursing, reflection-in-action, as demonstrated in the professional artistryof expert practitioners is a process in which the art of the practitioner fuses with a form of actionresearch to produce a science of practice (Conway 1994). Action research is an intentional, systematicmethod of enquiry used by a group of practitioner-researchers who reflect and act on the real lifeproblems encountered in their own practice (Munhall 2007). If this process is reflected on as inreflection-on-action, it is possible for the knowledge that is found in practical nursing knowledge to beidentified and developed into theories, which in turn can guide and inform practice. Benner (1984)identifies that the failure of nurses to chart their practice and clinical observations has deprived theoryof the uniqueness and richness of the knowledge embedded inn expert clinical practice. Well-chartedpractices and observations are essential for theory development. Reflection links the artistry of nursingwith the science of hypotheses testing, so that essentially both the art and the science of nursing areunited through the reflective process.Bridging the gap between theory research and practice is essential to bringing innovations fromnursing research into practical application by practicing nurses; much of this gap exists by defaultrelated to a lack of awareness by nurses of the theory that guides their practice (Jensen and Onyskiw2003). The primary failure within the theory-practice gap is not simply recognition; it is the lack ofincorporation of research within current nursing practice. A second and equally important componentis Evidence-Based Practice, an approach to providing care that integrates nursing experience andintuition with valid and current clinical research (Ritter 2001). Balas and Boren (2000) found that itcan take an average of seventeen years to translate research findings into clinical practice.DePalma (2000) defines Evidence-Based Practice as ???a total process beginning with knowing whatclinical questions to ask, how to find the best practice, and how to critically appraise the evidence forvalidity and applicability to the particular care situation. The best evidence then must be applied by aclinician with expertise in considering the patient??™s unique values and needs. The final aspect of theprocess is evaluation of the effectiveness of care and the continual improvement of the process??™.According to Billings and Kowalski (2006) ultimately, the value of integrating Evidence-BasedPractice into current nursing practice is the bridging of the gap between theory and practice byproviding nurses with recognition of the value of theory in practice.The theory-practice gap, which certainly exists within nursing practice, threatens to fragment nursingpractice. However, by means of Evidence-Based Practice this fragmentation can be, and often is,eliminated. The result is not only a bridge between theory and practice, but also nurses who think moreclearly and, ultimately improved patient care. Constructing the bridge over this gap by means ofEvidence-Based Practice may not be easy, but its benefits simply cannot be denied (Billings andKowalski 2006). However, according to Upton (1999) the present principles of Evidence-BasedPractice threaten to continue to exacerbate the theory-practice gap by the recognition that some of theprinciples and beliefs underpinning the concept are in direct contrast to contemporary nursing opinionand subsequently limit the practitioners??™ creativity and autonomy.If nursing is to engage in research for the common good, nursing philosophies, models and theoriesmust be used as guides to practice (McCurry et al 2010). Where nursing theory has been utilised in aclinical setting, its main contribution has been the facilitation of reflection, questioning and thinkingabout what nurses do (kozier et al 2008) and according to Whelton (2008) nursing theory bridgesphilosophical reflection and nursing practice. The integration of theory into practice serves as a guideto achieve nursing??™s disciplinary goals of promoting health and preventing illness across the globe(McCurry et al 2010). By using models and theories congruent with our philosophical perspectives,nursing knowledge is advanced and practicing nurses become empowered through their ability to useknowledge to transform perspectives, organise critical thinking and articulate rationales for decisionmaking, actions and goals (Kenney 2002) cited by (McCurry et al 2010).Nursing will continue to be in conflict between its life as an academic discipline (Visintainer 1986). Ifacademics and practitioners cannot reduce this divide and communicate their ideas then the future ofnursing is at risk. Nursing theory and practice are viewed as two separate nursing activities, withtheorists seen as those who write and teach about the ideal, separate from those who implement care inreality (Lindsay 1990). Even more depressing is the view that theory is anything that is taught in theclassroom and practice is what is done on the wards (McCaugherty 1991).Some authors argue that the shift of nurse education into Higher Education Institutions and theadoption of androgogic principles, where the students are facilitated to be self directed, critical,reflective thinkers, had led to nurse training having a ???process??™ rather than a ???product??™ focus, and hasparadoxically further enhanced the gap (Hewison and Wildman 1996). They also point out that thehigher status of academia over practice skills has also added to the chasm, they argue that theconflicting nature of underpinning philosophies of the two environments, that is, the humanistic,holistic values of nurse education and the increasing management values where targets and finance arepriority within the clinical environment, will inevitably result in a mismatch between theory andpractice.Nursing as a profession has a social mandate to contribute to the good of society through knowledge-based practice. Knowledge is built upon theories, and theories, together with their philosophical basesand disciplinary goals are the guiding frameworks for practice. (McCurry et al 2010).As a disciplinenursing needs multiple theories that embrace diverging paradigmatic perspectives. If nursing is limitedto being an applied science as proposed in the Koziol-McLain and Maeve article, then borrowedknowledge will continue to be used for guiding practice and nurses can relinquish opportunities toconceptualise their own theories about human health experience (Nagle & Mitchell 1994).It is suggested that a ???gap??™ between theory and practice is not only inevitable and healthy but necessaryfor change to occur in nurse education. The pervasive nature of the theory / practice divide suggeststhat it is likely to remain a permanent feature in the nursing education calendar. Rather than decryingthe theory / practice gap or lamenting its existence, we need to consider the factors by which it isperpetuated. Political as well as practical problems attend the translation of theory into practice,understanding the ways in which nurses can influence the policy process and the possibilities fortransformation are important preconditions for change (Rafferty et al 1996).Rafferty et al (1996) ask ???Should theory support and or transform practice??™ and reply by suggestingthat the relationship should be reciprocal, so that practice informs theory as much as theory testspractice. Rafferty et al (1996) conclude that the theory-practice gap can never be sealed entirely, thattheory and practice are by their nature always in dynamic tension, and that this tension is essential forchange in clinical practice to occur. Nagel and Mitchell (1994) contend that the position of Koziol-McLain and Maeve (1993) places nursing in the realm of applied science, whereas according to themnursing is a basic science. This difference in perspective underscores a major problem thatcharacterises the relationships between nursing practice and theory. That problem is that practicingnurses, nurse theorists, and nurse researchers often have difficulty in agreeing on a definition of justwhat nursing is. Within the context of this problem of defining nursing, it is not surprising that conflictfrequently characterizes the relationships between practicing nurses, nurse theorists, and nurseresearchers. Theory / practice issues have a long standing history in nurse education and are a chronicsource of controversy to which there is no easy or perfect solution (Rafferty el al 1996).? ? ? ReferencesAllmark, P. (1995) ???A classical view of the theory-practice gap in nursing??™, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 22, p. 18-23.Balas, E.A. and Boren, S.A. (2000). Managing clinical knowledge for healthcare improvements, Stuttgart, Germany: Schattauer.Baly, M. (1986) Florence Nightingale and the Nursing Legacy, London: Croom Helm.Benner, P. (1984) From Novice to Expert, California: Addison-Wesley.Bevis, E.O. and Watson, J. (1989). Toward a caring curriculum: A new pedagogy for nursing, New York: National League for NursingBillings, D.M. and Kowalski, K. (2006) ???Bridging the Theory-Practice Gap with Evidence-Based Practice??™, The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing??™, 37 (6), p. 248-249.Botha, M.E. (1989) ???Theory development in perspective the role of conceptual frameworks and models in theory development??™, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 14 (1), p. 49-55.Bower, D.A., Webb, A.A. and Stevens, D. (1994) ???Nursing students knowledge and anxiety about AIDS: An experimental workshop??™, Journal of Nursing Education, 33(6), p. 272-276.Cervero, R. (1988) Effective Continuing Education for Professionals, San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Conway, J. (1994) ???Reflection, the art and science of nursing and the theory-practice gap??™, British Journal of Nursing, 3 (3), p. 114-118.Cook, S. (1991) ???mind the theory/practice gap in nursing??™, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 16, p. 1462-1469.DePalma, J.A. (2000) ???Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines??™, Seminars in Perioperative Nursing??™, 9 (3), p.115-120.Draper, P. (1990) ???The development of theory in British nursing current position and future prospects??™, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 15, p. 12-15.Flynn, J.B. and Heffron, P.B. (1988) Nursing: From concept to practice. (2nd ed.). Norwalk, Connecticut: Appleton & Lange.Hewison, A. and Wildman, S. (1996) ???The theory-practice gap in nursing: a new dimension??™, Journal of Advanced Nursing??™, 24, p. 754-761.Jensen, L. and Onyskiw, J. (2003) ???Making sense of bits of information??™, Western Journal of nursing Research, 25 (2), p. 117-118.Kozial-McLain, J. and Maeve, M. (1993) ???Nursing Theory in Perspective??™, Nursing Outlook, 41 (2). p. 79-81.Kozier, B., Erb, G., Berman, A., Snyder, S., Lake, R. and Harvey, S. (2008) Fundamentals of Nursing, concepts, process and practice. Essex: Pearson Education Ltd.Krouse, H.J. and Holloran, S.D. (1992) ???Nursing managers and clinical nursing research??™, Nursing Management, 23 (7), p. 62-64.Lathlean, J. (1994) ???Historical and empirical approaches??™, in Lathlean, J. and Vaughan, B. (eds) Unifying Nursing Practice and Theory, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Lauder, W. (1994) ???Beyond reflection: practical wisdom and the practical syllogism??™, Nurse Education Today, 14, p. 91-98.Lindsay, B. (1990) ???The gap between theory and practice??™, Nursing Standard, 5, p.34-35.? Loveridge, C.E. (1991). ???Lessons in excellence for nurse administrators??™. Nursing Management, 22(5), p.46-47.McCaugherty, D. (1991) ???The theory-practice gap in nurse education: its causes and possible solutions. Findings from an action research study??™, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 16, p. 1055-1061.Mc Curry, M.K., Revell, S.M.H. and Roy, S.C. (2010) ???Knowledge for the good of the individual and society: linking philosophy, disciplinary goals, theory and practice??™, Nursing Philosophy, 11 (1), pp. 42-52.Meleis, I.A. (1991) Theoretical Nursing Development and Progress, Philadelphia: JB Lippincott.Miller, A. (1985) ???The relationship between nursing theory and nursing practice??™, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 10, p. 417-424.Munhall, P.L. (2007) Nursing Research A Qualitative Perspective, Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett.Nagle, L. and Mitchell, G.J. (1994) ???Letters to the editor??™, Nursing Outlook, 42 (3), p. 101-144.Nursing Theories. (2010) ???Application of Theory in Nursing Process??™, Nursing Theories, a companion to nursing theories and models, [Online] Available at: http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/application_nursing_theories.htmlRafferty, A.M., Allcock, N. and Lathlean, J. (1996) ???The theory/practice ???gap??™: taking issue with the issue??™, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 23 p. 685-691.Ritter, B. (2001) ???Considering evidence-based practice??™, The Nurse Practitioner, 26 (5), p. 63-65.Sandelands, L. (1991) ???What is so practical about theory??™, Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 20 (3), p. 235-262.Smith, M.J. and Liehr, P.R. (2008) Middle Range Theory for Nursing, New York: Springer Publishing Company.Tolley, K.A. (1995) ???Theory from practice for practice: is this a reality??™, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 21, p.184-190.Upton, D.J. (1999) ???How can we achieve evidence-based practice if we have a theory-practice gap in nursing today??™ Journal of Advanced Nursing, 29 (3), p. 549-555.Visintainer, M.A. (1986) ???The nature of knowledge and theory in nursing??™, Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 18, p. 32-38.Whelton, B.J.B. (2008) ???Human nature: a foundation for palliative care??™, Nursing Philosophy. 9, pp.77-88.

Homo Suburbiensis

Homo Suburbiensis
This poem strikes in a narrative tone explaining a story, specifically a story with morals, wise and Bruce tries to get his audience to understand and realise his thoughts. The first sentence quotes ???one constant in a world of variable??™, I think this means one thing stays unchanged, and ???in a world of variables??™ symbolises the constant??™s surroundings, circumstance or situation. So it??™s like one stable factor in many different cases. Then it gives an example, which is also indicated by a dash/hyphen. He describes a man that??™s quite lonesome and ordinary, with his garden which describes around what date, time and setting we are meant to be looking at. He uses metaphors that tease my intelligence and I think he lets us think for while and try to interpret such a background. I also think there??™s a little irony in this poem, because the start of the poem Dawe describes the setting as a comfortable cosy sort of environment and very fitting and familiar to the man, but then during the middle of the poem Dawe writes that the man stands there lost and confused in his homey surroundings but then in the next paragraph he lists what the man hears, slowly unfolding his ironic sentence and explaining what he means in hints however the sentence is incomplete as if Bruce Dawe wants you to think of the reason yourself which puzzles and almost resists the intelligence of the readers. I think he has used his earlier sentences as a hint or link and my interpretation of what he means of ???offering up??™ is offering what any man can and then he starts listing down aspects of life, so I think he means just living and bringing himself and all the events and feelings that makes up his personality into this world as an input and effect on other peoples??™ lives and futures including his and ???instead??™ meaning instead of bringing something great and interesting, he can only offer himself in this world even if it really is.. not much.
So the constant is peoples??™ lives, past, his time, pain, feelings, and all in very different surroundings all over the world.

Concepts of Religion and Spirituality

Role of the Nurse
Their role in health care covers a broad spectrum such as the coordination of care,
promotion of health and wellness, prevention of disease and palliative measures. They
are professionals who help inform the public about their coverage, safe accessible and
high quality care in this complex health care system. They are trusted by the public, as the professionals who advocate issues for the sick. Their knowledge in health care is invaluable to the creation for improved health care policies.
The nurse must take this opportunity to influence government and help in the creation of new public policies. Their acquired knowledge and experience in several specialties like clinical practice, administration, education and research can facilitate the development of accessible cost effective quality health care (“Connecticut Nursing News,” 2011). They are a valuable group of experienced as clinicians.
They perform on the front lines of health care and are the point of contact person for patients. Their data collected helps to identify issues, problems and system discrepancies. This evidence based information collected allows nurse researcher??™s to identify solutions which improve health outcomes. The nurse educator continues to inform the public that health care is a human right (Bryant, 2011).
Their professional responsibility is to engage the public, policy makers and other interdisciplinary groups of their knowledge to create effective health care changes (Williams, 2011). They have become more organized nationally and internationally. This foundation representation of their voices is necessary in the decision making power to update healthcare??™s fragmented policies. They are now engaged in debates nationally and globally to help develop a better future in nursing and health care (Bryant, 2011).
They have been educated in assessment and group processes and must communicate daily with several interdisciplinary teams. The nurse must possess excellent communication skills to perform her duties effectively. She can review legislation, concerning all major issues and discuss implications to create improved care policies. They are professionals in health care which possess many talents and vital to the development in policy processes.
Their scope of practice is related to the high turnover rates among new graduates. This transition from school to practice requires greater focus (Williams, 2011). The development for nurse residency programs has decreased turnover rates. This program is essential to every new nursing graduate who will be working in acute healthcare areas.
The nursing programs must make an effortless pathway system from associate degree nurse (ADN) to baccalaureate degree nurse (BSN) and or master??™s degree level. They communicate daily with interdisciplinary teams which have a minimum education level is a baccalaureate degree. Their educational knowledge in remaining current requires a lifelong learning process.
The quality health information nurses share, provides evidence and information to facilitate improved health policies (Bryant, 2011). The health care system understands nurses are vital across the entire world. They facilitate ambulatory care, acute care and primary care. Their collaborating collectively influences and government to gives them access to formulate new policy.
The Governor in New Jersey vetoed the health care federal bill. He feels this health care approach should not be made for the people in this state. He wants New Jersey to have state approved health plans, marketplace accessible online and or by telephone system (Livio, 2012). His plan includes the Federal government to help uninsured people pay their premiums.
This is unacceptable to many residents across the state of New Jersey. The 1.3 million approximately uninsured people in New Jersey, disagree with Governor Christie??™s vote.
Their solution is to have a watch dog monitoring committee, to report how the $8.7 million in Federal grants money is being used in New Jersey (Livio, 2012). The residents, who reside in New Jersey, want an explanation how that money is being used towards health care.
The Republican representatives in New Jersey are outraged about the Affordable Care Act (ACA). They do not feel the need to compile with this new federal law. There are Democratics in New Jersey, speaking up and going to town meetings in large groups. They want the Federal Government to protect and provide them with this basic human right which is access to quality health care.
The New Jersey nurse??™s active role has been to take the public out cries and concerns to Congress and keep lobbying to improve our health care crisis. The nurses who lobby in Trenton, New Jersey know how critical the nursing shortage is in our state, or in general and the challenges we face trying to access quality care.
In conclusion, the nurse??™s role is vital to reform policy, improving health outcomes, to solve, alleviate and prevent health care issues. Their united voices will help to create change in a positive wave towards our future. They will continue to use their evidence based knowledge to improve our health care system. Their persistence must not cease, as they lift voices to become a stronger group professionally and actively participating in creating policies which govern nurses and the public we serve.
References
Bryant, R. (2011). Influencing and persuading: the need to increase government access to nursing policy advice. International Nursing Review, 58(2). doi:10.1111/j.1466.7657.2011.00910.
Livio, S. K. (2012, May 10). Governor Chris Christie vetoes ??™health exchange??™ bill tied to federal health care reform law. New Jersey News. Retrieved from http://nj.com/news/index.ssf/2012/05/gov.
The role of nurse in realizing a transformed health care system. (2011, March, April, May). Connecticut Nursing News, pp. 1, 11-12. Retrieved from CINAHL with Full Text database.
Webber, J. (2011). Nursing and Health Policy Perspectives. International Nursing Review, 58(2), 145-6. doi:10.111/j.466-7657.2011.00908
Williams, M. J. (2011, March, April, May). The Role and Functions of Government Relations Team. Connecticut Nursing News, pp. 1,11-12. Retrieved from CINAHL with Full Text database.

Homework

Identify recruitment steps and rationale our decision
CHS Center for Humans Services initially needs to identify the gap or requirement for a recruitment to begin for the Humans Services Coordinator. How many people are needed Four people have been identified after reviewing the utilization analysis. It is important to have an up-to-date job description which provides clarification of the job requirements, both for the hiring manager and the prospective employee. Prospective employees need to be aware of the requirements. By having an accurate job description the manager can focus attention on key language for job announcements and interview questions that are critical in recruiting. Always remember when reviewing the job description, what are the needs of the company both now and in the future.
Once the job description is updated how are you going to recruit Developing a strong recruiting strategy will help identify the strengths along with the challenges and gaps. Do you want to recruit internally or externally CHS announces job posting internally and externally to reach the most talented recruits. CHS decided to announce the vacancy for two weeks to allow for a bigger pool of candidates. As the position closes, resumes need to be reviewed and selection of the best candidates reviewed before calling for a preliminary interview. Since this position is working with customers with developmental disabilities, a scenario is prepared for candidates to work though. This is to clear out candidates that are not the best. Candidates that do well on the scenario are called back for a final interview. References are checked at his point to ensure they are a right fit for the organization. Once the final decision is made a formal letter and phone call will be made to the candidate from our Human resource office offering the position.

Homework

1. Why do you think is it important for HR to be a strategic partner to the business Human Resource professionals touch every level and every department of an organization. Due to this employees at all levels become very familiar and develop a trust with the HR partners. In many (big) organizations HR is very familiar with the change management process and human capital development, in fact successful companies benefit tremendously when they have HR in a fully functioning in a strategic business partner role. By allowing HR to be represented in meetings alongside other senior leaders , a company its allowing parts of the strategic linkage to flow in the development of strategic plans, implementation of key tactics, and measuring the organizations success in executing its plan by Human Resources, in addition HR increases its own knowledge of the organization and creates solid partnerships through collaborative communication efforts, and increases its knowledge in other areas that are extremely important to being a successful strategic business partner. 2. What benefits do you think the employees derive from this arrangement The benefits derived from this type of arrangement are intangible and they have a huge impact of the company??™s performance and botXXX XXne. The most important asset of any organization is its human capital and the objective of HR is to maximize the return on investment from the organization??™s human capital and minimize financial risk. It is my belief that one of the mantras of HR is that they build and grow organizations by ensuring that the human capital is in place, proactive, happy and functioning well. HR should be the proactive not reactive partner for top management. Due to HR being a strategic partner, in some companies they are involved with the budget process and discussions; this allows them to make recommendation of additional benefits or an increase in benefits as well as compensation in order to compete with the market

Concepts of Health & Health Promotion

Critically analyse the concepts of health and health promotion and apply your understanding to the development of health work with young people/communities.Within this essay, I aim to discuss, critically evaluate and demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of health and health promotion and apply my understanding to the development of health work with young people and communities.The Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary (2006) gives one definition as ???the condition of the body and the degree to which it is free from illness, or the state of being well???. The perception of health as described by the World Health Authority in 1948 (citied by Naidoo & Wills 1994) ??? is a state of complete physical mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity???. This definition, I believe, is impractical to achieve, as a ???complete??? state of health means that all factors affecting one??™s health must be positive and in balance at all times.In 1986 the definition of health was expanded by the World Health Authority to include a community concept of health and stated that ???Health is the extent to which an individual or group is able, on the one hand, to realise aspirations and satisfy needs; and on the other hand, to change or cope with the environment. Health is therefore seen as a resource for everyday life, not an object of living; it is a positive concept emphasising social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities ???, citied by Naidoo & Wills 1994. This definition places responsibility on individuals or the community to maximise, achieve and use resources effectively and demonstrate a strength of mind when facing new circumstances and I believe that this is a better-quality definition.Health in my understanding concerns the physical, emotional and psychological aspects of well being within one??™s self. Social issues surround the concept of health making it difficult to limit it to only one definition and perspective, as health is affected by the society and culture we live within. Dahlgren & Whitehead??™s model (citied by Adams et al 2001) demonstrates this clearly by illustrating the main determinants of health as socioeconomic conditions, living and working conditions, social and community conditions, individual lifestyle and age, sex and hereditary factors. This model is holistic and demonstrates properly, all of the factors that can affect a persons health, the implications of these for healthwork are that workers are focused on impacting all of these levels in order to improve health .Medicine has developed over time, the knowledge and practices of medicine has changed and expanded, in Barry & Yuill (2002) they describe the social construction of medical knowledge as ???the degree to which medical knowledge is a product of those engaged in its practice???, this means that medicine and medical knowledge is limited to those who are educated and trained in those professions by those who experienced medical learning in the same way. This process creates a power imbalance as the knowledge stays with those who are privileged enough to access it, it is proposed by Barry & Yuill (2002) that ???medical knowledge is a form of power, with the potential to control and influence the lives of its recipients???.Barry & Yuill (2002) describe that power is given through knowledge and there are various perspectives of health that include lay understanding, medical understanding and alternative understanding. The dawn of the scientific age saw society move away from religious and superstitious beliefs to scientific ways, experiments were carried out and the knowledge was drawn together and taught to medical students. Stacey (citied by Barry & Yuill 2002 p18) argues that the ???developments that took place laid the basis from which biomedicine developed.??? Biomedicine is the traditional underpinning of health, based on a medical approach and is most frequently used. The development of biomedicine as the dominant perspective on health has occurred as the evidence developed was scientific and was seen as ???unbiased, rational and purely descriptive of the natural word.??? Barry & Yuill (2002 p19). However, Naidoo and Wills (1994) describe assumptions of the biomedical view of health and state that the body is like a machine, it is connected in all parts but parts can be treated individually. Biomedicine in addition, assumes that health equals all parts of the body functioning correctly, this assumption does not allow for a disabled person to achieve health. A biomedical view expects illness to equal a measurable malfunction, disease is caused by internal processes, individual failure to regulate lifestyle and pathogens invading the body. These assumptions can be criticised as they do not allow for other causes of illness and that all illnesses will have the same characteristics in every patient., this in turn could lead to patients being undiagnosed. The final assumption described is that medical treatment aims to restore normal functioning, the message here is that ???normal??? equals good, again this discriminates and is critical of, various members of society because who decides what is ???normal???White 2002 describes how the scientific medical explanations are used to regulate personal behaviour by imposing compliance with social roles, sociologists came up with the term medicalization to describe how scientific knowledge is being applied to human behaviour. Zola (citied by MacDonald and Theodore 1998 p10) who raised the issue of the medicalization of everyday life, argued that anything could be labelled an illness or medical problem if it affects the body or mind and causes illness. He states that ???medicine, because it is concerned with the wellbeing of individuals, can intrude upon any aspect of everyday life it perceives as affecting health.???Medicalization is a critical concept because it highlights the fact that medicine is not a purely scientific activity but a social activity. This means that illness is not based on biology but on experience and illnesses are constructed. I believe that the medicalization of society reinforces anxieties about health and fears about disease. From considering the historic development of biomedicine and the concept of medicalization it is important to consider some of the critiques of biomedical model. (Gerhardt 1995) Archie Cochrane, during the 60??™s and 70??™s was concerned with the ???untested assumptions??? of biomedicine, he called for the use of randomised controlled trials to evaluate the ???effectiveness and efficiency??? of medical care, to challenge the assumptions. Thomas McKeown wrote in the 70??™s and argued that social processes made the biggest impact on infectious diseases and discussed living conditions and nutrition as key reasons. He also suggested that personal lifestyle choices had become a major determinant of health and medicine should be concerned with prevention as well as care. During the 1980??™s Anne Oakley provided a strong critique of biomedicine and medical practice that argued that the male dominated medical profession has manipulated and defined women??™s problems and roles, without considering women??™s experiences. I have considered the ways in which different social theorists have interpreted the concept of health, and the social activity and power structures involved . I will now provide a understanding of health education and of health promotion within a historical and political context. Davies and Macdowell (chapter in Lincoln and Nutbeam 2006) trace health education back to public health movements in the nineteenth century. Winslow 1923 (citied by Davies and Macdowell) stated that ???education is the keynote of the modern campaign for public health???. His writing formed that basis for public health education to become a major tool in addressing health.During the second half of the twentieth century, the existing efforts to promote use of the health services were accompanied by concern with ???unhealthy lifestyles??? and individual and personal behaviour were the centre of attention. The politicians at the time found the concept of health education ???irresistible ??? as it appeared to reduce the demand for health care and also tackle emerging health threats. Various national bodies were formed during the 60??™s and 70??™s in western countries and in 1972 the Labour government promoted the ???development of community based integrated primary health care??? and by the end of the 70??™s many countries had developed ???delivery of community based health programmes??? that has a deep focus on prevention and community participation (Davies and Macdowell 2006).In 1986 the Canadian document entitled ???Achieving Health for All: A Framework for Health Promotion was presented at the ???International Health Promotion Conference??? in Ottawa and became known as the Ottawa Charter. This charter gave an understanding of health promotion as it gave a framework for action that included building healthy public policy, creating supportive environments, strengthening community action, developing personal skills and reorient health services. The World Health Organisation (1986) described health promotion as ???the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health.??? (Monash University 2001) The Ottawa charter gave a consensus on the definition of health promotion, the prerequisites for health and three key principles; reducing inequalities, increasing prevention and enhancing coping, that enabled organisations to plan health promotion within their societies and communities. (Lawton, and Cantrell 2004)Health promotion acts as an umbrella term to encompass traditional health education, health education was based on the individual biomedical model of health and health promotion is designed to tackle structural inequalities and aimed at population and communities. The relationship between the two concepts is that they are both linked to health policies that governments set up, as health promotion has led to the development of national government agencies and local infrastructure for the ???delivery of community based health programmes???. (Davies and Macdowell 2006).There are various models and approaches to health work I have selected two that represent different approaches to health promotion. The first model is proposed by Naidoo and Wills (1994) who describe five approaches, each approach has an aim, a method and a worker/client relationship. The first is the medical approach, which identify those at ???risk??? and is an expert led approach, the second is behaviour change, which asks people to lead ???healthier??? lifestyles and take responsibility for their health, this approach is again expert led and the ideology is one of victim blaming. The educational approach is concerned with increasing knowledge and skills in regard to health, this approach may be expert led but the user may have some input. Empowerment is listed as an approach to work alongside user??™s to address their needs, the expert acts as a facilitator in this process and users can become empowered. The final approach is social change, which tackles inequalities in health, this approach involves social policy and is a top down method.In 1991 Beattie proposed a framework for analysing health promotion and it identified ???activities around the dimensions of authoritative/negotiated and individual/collective??? these four dimensions are set on lines at opposing ends to each other and are placed horizontally and vertically. Therefore the relationship between the ???authoritative??? and ???individual??? includes health persuasion techniques which could include behaviour change, the relationship between the ???authoritative??? and ???collective??? is one of legislative action, which is a top down approach. The relationship between the ???individual??? and ???negotiated??? is a client centred empowerment approach and the ???negotiated??? and ???collective??? relationship is the community development approach, which is a bottom up approach based on the communities needs.I believe that Beattie??™s (1991) model is the most appropriate model to use for health promotion as it allows practioners to move between the four relationships to map the practice that is taking place and make use of more than one method if required, as practice ???rarely fits into a single one.???Each model uses the term of ???empowerment”, empowerment is a process not a product, it is an ongoing process, by giving information I can act as a facilitator in this process to change power relationships. Empowerment is based on the participation of the community, it was agreed that for the purpose of the presentation (see appendix) that community empowerment was the most appropriate model to use. Labonte (1994 s.l.) produced a community development empowerment holosphere that describes five overlapping spheres that start with personal care, leading to group development, to community organisation, coalition advocacy and finally political action. Laverack (2004) continues with this model and argues that community empowerment is an outcome and a process which ???progresses along a dynamic continuum.???However there are sociological critiques of health promotion, MacDonald and Theodore discuss health promotion placed in a medical model context and states that it is aimed at individuals without addressing the ???wider socio-economic and environmental determinants??? and leads to ???victim blaming???. This is a structural critique and power relationships are still present in the health promotion work when it is placed in a medical model.Douglas (1995) argued that health promotion could not be disconnected from dominant ideologies and social policy, in regard to race and discussed the extent of social policies angle??™s during the past 50 years that include ???assimilation???, ???integration??? and ???multiculturalists??? that have underpinned health promotion for ethnic minorities. This has meant that these groups have experienced racism within the health services provided for them, they have been expected to give up their cultural identity, stereotyped for their health through culture and currently there is not enough emphasis on racism due to multiculturalism.Daykin & Naidoo (1995) had difficulty with the ways in which sexism has prejudiced health promotion. They described that medical knowledge is based on a white middle class males perspectives, therefore women??™s health has been of secondary importance. They discuss the ???medicalization??? of women??™s condition such as pregnancy and the menopause, what was one seen as a natural process has now become ???treatable???. Women are also seen as providers of care within society therefore making them responsible for health.Public policy in the UK is now characterized by an recognition that tackling inequalities requires complex steps, and that these steps are likely to be effective if they are based on aspiring to equalize social inequality through building community capacity, participation and consultation with communities. It is therefore imperative that politicians consider the sociological critiques when creating policy.When practioners consider carrying out health work there is a process to follow, this is demonstrated within the appendix but is commonly accepted that an aspect of health must be chosen as the focus, the needs for such work must be assessed, a set of aims and objectives have to be drawn up, the practioners decide which model or approach to health work will be used, the methods of the work agreed, measures in place to safeguard against discrimination and ensure the work is ethical and a through process of evaluation designed to measure all outcomes.A vital aspect of health promotion is the importance of values in health work and the ethical principles involved in developing anti-discriminatory health work. Health promotion must always be carried out ethically, this applies to the collection, analysis practice and sharing of information. Ethics are generally understood to be a commonly agreed framework that encompasses personal and professional standards, including shared morals, values, and beliefs, within which to operate. ???The bottom line of good youth work practice rests on the worker??™s values.??? (Young 1999 p98). The ethical issues to consider within health work are the right to autonomy, people do not have to participate. The principles of beneficence and non-maleficence must be applied and upheld, justice, in a sense of resource allocation, respect for the individual and the group and common law. (Naidoo & Wills 1994) By creating a code of conduct that is open to review, has boundaries, sets guidelines for anti-discriminatory practice, discusses morality and exploitation, practioners can further establish a framework to work within. The hypothetical health promotion project that we carried out has its own code of conduct and it can be seen within the appendix. I believe it is imperative for all practioners to understand the ethical issues that can arise when carrying out health promotion and the tools that are available, such as the code of conduct should be included to ensure that the participants are protected.Within the essay I have referred to the hypothetical exercise that I took part which demonstrated my application of theory to practice. An appendix is attached of the presentation which contains all details relating to the aim and objectives, model and methods and code of conduct. The appendix demonstrates my ability to translate theoretical understandings of health, professional power and health promotion to the development of anti-oppressive health work with young people and communities. I have examined health as an aspect of social action and believe that the concept of health is contested and health of the individual relates to all of the determinants of health.Word count 2750
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